Cell

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CELL. A small room in a prison. See Dungeon.

References in periodicals archive ?
These human pacemaker cells were tested in rat hearts and were shown to function as a biological pacemaker, by activating the electrical impulses that trigger the contraction of the heart.
The heartbeat originates in the sinoatrial node of the heart's right upper chamber, where pacemaker cells are clustered.
"Although we and others have created primitive biological pacemakers before, this study is the first to show that a single gene can direct the conversion of heart muscle cells to genuine pacemaker cells. The new cells generated electrical impulses spontaneously and were indistinguishable from native pacemaker cells," said Hee Cheol Cho, PhD., a Heart Institute research scientist.
However, it is not known whether the pacemaker cells have intrinsic signal generation or require visual input to be active.
Cho, "Direct conversion of quiescent cardiomyocytes to pacemaker cells by expression of Tbx18," Nature Biotechnology, vol.
Eugenio Cingolani, MD, the director of the Heart Institute's Cardiogenetics-Familial Arrhythmia Clinic, said that in the future, pacemaker cells also could help infants born with congenital heart block.
In cardiac muscle, however, the increased cellular Ca concentration does not greatly exceed the on-off trigger level of 1 uM, and it always remains around this level despite the all-or-none nature of electrical signals given by pacemaker cells, although the reason behind this is unclear.
These cells have gap junctions with smooth muscle cells which give way to nerve terminals; these these cells are called pacemaker cells.[sup.2]
Idiopathic gastric perforation in neonates and abnormal distribution of intestinal pacemaker cells. J Paediatr Surg 2000;35:673-6.
The heart has 10 billion cells but fewer than 10,000 of them are pacemaker cells, which generate electrical activity that spreads to other cardiac cells, making the organ contract rhythmically and pump blood.
The stimulant de-activates specialised pacemaker cells in the walls of the tubes.