The working hypothesis, based on biologic, environmental, and epidemiologic investigations by CDC and the Carter Center, is that human cases and dog infections are associated with the domestic and commercial fishing industry along the Chari River and involve fish or other aquatic species that serve as paratenic hosts
(intermediate hosts in which no development of the parasite occurs).
proops can serve as intermediate, definitive or paratenic hosts
of various species of parasites.
First-stage larvae (L1) develop into second-stage larvae (L2) in the gastrointestinal tract of the second intermediate or paratenic hosts
and mature into third-stage larvae (L3), which encyst in their tissues.
renale in maned wolves is related to the ingestion of water containing the oligochaete or to the ingestion of the paratenic host
, a fish or an amphibian, containing the third-instar larva of D.
These larvae undoubtedly belong to a Porrocaecum species parasitizing predatory birds, with amphibians and reptiles serving as paratenic hosts
procyonis is different from other nematodes that cause larva migrans because of its aggressive tissue migration and invasion of the CNS, its continued growth of larvae to a large size within the CNS, and its resistance to dying once in the paratenic host
Most, if not all, hairworms have an indirect life cycle, involving an aquatic paratenic host
The recent report of a natural amphibian paratenic host
, combined with the results of our study, indicates that the transmission of D.
The acanthocephalan transmission to anurans occurs by ingestion of invertebrates parasitized with cystacants that infect the gastrointestinal tract (Kennedy, 2006), making the anuran a definitive or paratenic host
(Smales, 2007; Pinhao et al.
Ingestion of the stool in contaminated soil or the meat of a paratenic host
can transmit the larvae to humans.
2000), this fish can be considered as opportunistic and this behavior will influence the parasitism levels and species composition, since most of endoparasitic helminths present larval stages which require an intermediate or paratenic host
An animal acting as a substitute intermediate host of a parasite; no additional development of the parasite occurs in the paratenic host
; also known as a transport host.