Consuming infected fish, predators can be infected and serve as paratenic host
when they are fed upon by birds (Cole, 2009).
A parasitic nematode carried by intermediate mollusk hosts and definitive rat hosts (6,7), rat lungworm can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who become infected by ingesting intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts
, such as freshwater shrimp and frogs (6,7).
Because of previous investigations, a working hypothesis is that transmission in humans and dogs might occur without drinking contaminated water, perhaps through ingestion of fish or other aquatic animals that serve as transport or paratenic hosts
(intermediate hosts in which the D.
The prevention and control of toxocariasis in the definitive host, that is, dogs and cats, will reduce the risk of infection for humans and other paratenic hosts
. However, treatment is difficult due to the occurrence of different clinical forms of human toxocariasis .
First-stage larvae (L1) develop into second-stage larvae (L2) in the gastrointestinal tract of the second intermediate or paratenic hosts
and mature into third-stage larvae (L3), which encyst in their tissues.
renale in maned wolves is related to the ingestion of water containing the oligochaete or to the ingestion of the paratenic host
, a fish or an amphibian, containing the third-instar larva of D.
The first record of amphibians as paratenic host
of Serpinema larvae (Nematoda: Camallanidae).
Visceral larva migrans (VLM), also known as larva migrans visceralis, is a syndrome caused by invasion of internal organs of the paratenic host
(transport host where larvae do not undergo any development) by second-stage nematode larvae.
Indirect life cycles involve a paratenic host
(or a host in which significant development does not occur) in addition to the developmental (spider) host, which is infected by ingesting the infective stage of the parasite (Poinar 1985).
Most, if not all, hairworms have an indirect life cycle, involving an aquatic paratenic host
have been reported infecting the intestine several amphibian and reptile hosts, they are paratenic host
to bridge ecological gaps, because utilize arthropods as intermediate hosts, where larval development occurs.
medinensis can use an amphibian (frog) (8) as a paratenic host
in the laboratory (8) and has recovered, for the first time, a Dracunculus larva from a frog captured in the wild in Chad (9).