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in both England and Scotland it is legally presumed that a child born during marriage is also the child of the husband. The presumption can be rebutted. The court can order DNA or other tests, but if the mother, having control, does not allow samples to be taken then all the court can do is draw such inferences as are appropriate. There are very technical rules as to who is a parent in cases of artificial insemination and the like. See ILLEGITIMACY.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006

PARENTAGE. Kindred. Vide 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1955; Branch; Line.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Anderson, Adding Players to the Game: Parentage Determinations when Assisted Reproductive Technology is Used to Create Families, 62 ARK.
What this analysis reveals is that while courts are generally cognizant of constitutional parental rights and their potential relevance to parentage determinations, they do not always grapple with those rights in ways that reflect a full grasp of their importance or a consensus on the best way to resolve the points of tension.
After examining the applicable paternity statute, the court found that it was apparent that the statute is simply an inadequate and inappropriate device to resolve parentage determinations of children born of this type of gestational surrogacy.

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