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in the constitutional law of the UK, originally a body summoned to assist the monarch in discussing important matters and dispensing justice and hearing grievances. In modern times it is divided into two houses: the House of Commons, which is democratically elected, and the House of Lords, which is inhabited by hereditary and appointed peers. It sits in Westminster (formerly a royal palace) and is now under the control of the Speaker of the House of Commons. Still known as the High Court of Parliament, its functions are not simply legislative, although that is its most important role today. It is summoned by exercise of the royal prerogative, and this meeting is known as a Parliament that lasts until that Parliament is dissolved. While convened, it divides into sessions, now two a year, each session being terminated by prorogation (again an exercise of the prerogative). The Meeting of Parliament Act 1694 provides (following the Triennial Act 1664) that Parliaments must be called at least once every three years. The convention that requires the important Finance, Army, Air Force and Navy Acts to be re-enacted annually means that Parliament sits at least once a year, although having become the modern government of a modern nation it is in almost constant session.

Its pomp and ceremony are legendary. The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod leads the members of the House of Commons to the House of Lords on the opening of Parliament. The Queen usually attends the opening of a Parliament, and, indeed, each session, to give the Queen's speech (drafted in fact by the cabinet), setting out the legislative programme. A Bill for the Suppression of Clandestine Outlawries is read at the start of every session except the first to show the world that the Commons can initiate bills not in the Queen's speech. In the Lords, the debate on the Queen's speech takes place after a formal reading of the Select Vestries Bill and in the form of a debate on a loyal address.

The Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 represent the present state of the long-running struggle between Lords and Commons, and reflects the fact that universal suffrage, which began in 1832 with the great Reform Act, has strengthened the hand of the Commons over the Lords. The thrust of the Acts read together is that the Lords can at best delay a Bill by sending it back to the Commons, who then have only to bide their time to turn it into law. The 1949 Act was actually passed under the provisions of the 1911 Act, and it was this 1949 provision that effectively made the power a delaying one instead of one that might have allowed a longer period and one in which the electorate has a say in an important matter over which the two houses had disagreed. Its constitutionality has been challenged in the courts but unsuccessfully. See also NATIONAL ASSEMBLY FOR WALES, SCOTTISH PARLIAMENT.

PARLIAMENT. This word, derived from the French parlement, in the English law, is used to designate the legislative branch of the government of Great Britain, composed of the house of lords, and the house of commons.
     2. It is an error to regard the king of Great Britain as forming a part of parliament. The connexion between the king and the lords spiritual, the lords temporal, and the commons, which, when assembled in parliament, form the, three states of the realm, is the same as that which subsists between the king and those states -- the people at large -- out of parliament; Colton's Records, 710; the king not being, in either case, a member, branch, or co-estate, but standing solely in the relation of sovereign or head. Rot. Par. vol. iii,. 623 a.; 2 Mann. & Gr. 457 n.

References in periodicals archive ?
Ahmed had been sworn into parliamentary office during the inaugural session, along with the rest of the newly elected members of parliament.
On Monday, Al-Sudani newspaper quoted sources as saying the NCP parliamentary bloc agreed that the NCP would chair seven parliamentary committees instead of nine, pointing the remaining five committees will be headed by MP's from other political parties.
Parliamentary friendship groups are parliamentary bodies that can be established in the parliaments for the purpose of voluntary improvement of relations and cooperation of a country with the parliaments of other countries.
He also stressed keenness of the legislature, with its two rooms to remain pioneering of the effective and rational parliamentary practice, responsive to other all national issues.
Aoun had debated the possibility of parliamentary elections with his allies but it was not clear whether it was also discussed with Hariri by way of the ongoing negotiations between the two sides, the sources added.
Deputy Parliament Speaker Meral AkE-ener stated that it had been her turn to conduct Wednesday's parliamentary session, when the summaries of proceedings were discussed in the General Assembly of Parliament, adding, "Despite the fact that it was my turn, Ecicek used his authority to change the monthly rotation list that names the deputy speakers before the sessions.
The forum highlighted the importance of mass media -- both conventional and new -- as a strategic partner for a better interactive parliamentary life.
In this paper*, I want to discuss another critical aspect of our democratic development -- the transition to parliamentary government.
To note, the parliamentary majority suggested amending the law regulating the formation of the Commission on Ethics.
According to parliamentary sources, Veljanoski invited Wednesday the coordinators of the parliamentary groups, including SDSM, as initiator of the no-confidence motion, to a coordination meeting Thursday at 10.
The reelection of Dr Shah took place during the 58 Commonwealth Parliamentary Association Conferences at Colombo, Sri Lanka.
At present, in big states, the upper spending limit in parliamentary constituency is Rs 25 lakh and Rs 10 lakh in assembly constituency.

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