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White rural women reformers soon shifted back to emphasizing female purity--for example, petitioning state legislatures to pass criminal seduction laws that resurrected ideas about feminine passionlessness. Abolitionist reform discourse also proved to have a double edge, as rhetoric focusing on black women's sexual exploitation at times reinforced characterizations of black women as "jezebels." As early as 1840, interracial cooperation began to fracture.
"Passionlessness: An Interpretation of Victorian Sexual Ideology 1790-1850." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 4 (1978): 219-36.
So far, I have demonstrated that Siddal's re-visionary ballads invite readers' skepticism that female passionlessness is how women really feel, illustrate how the dutiful angel in the house becomes worn out, and portray female autonomy (albeit to tragic ends).
As historians of gender have made clear, new middle-class norms that arose in the first half of the nineteenth century prescribed sexual purity and "passionlessness" for women.
See also Nancy Cott, "Passionlessness: An Interpretation of Victorian Sexual Ideology, 1790-1850," Signs 4 (1978) 219-236, who interestingly argues that angelic status did give women a dignity absent in other interpretations of womanhood.
Although Leonard sees some gains for doctoral students in a managerialist university (more supervision), she finds implicit a "new masculinism" that "over-values rationality, individual autonomy, objectivity, and scientism, and now also political passionlessness and econonism" (p.45).
(iv) Passionlessness (apatheia).(58) In Skemmata 2, Evagrius remarks that to see the state of the mind is impossible unless one is "passionless." Evagrius's term here, apatheia, has nothing to do with "apathy." Nor does it mean a lack of passion in the sense of a "lack of emotion." In fact, Evagrius defines his understanding quite precisely in the Skemmata:
She studied the scandals that erupted when otherwise respectable nineteenth-century women poisoned their husbands, slit their mistresses' children's throats, or otherwise violated in the most violent and dramatic ways the conventions of "true womanhood" and the ideals of "passionlessness." The first feminist historian to write about homicidal women, Hartman recounted their crimes but found their capacity to delineate wider tensions in gender and class relations in industrializing Britain and France more illuminating.
Second, the disinterestedness and passionlessness of Emile's attitude anticipate Kant's requirements for aesthetic judgment in the Critique of Judgement.(4) In this way, the events on the "stage of history" are judged as aesthetic phenomena.
If Chauncey's supervisor put "passionlessness" on the historical map, he has colourfully documented and celebrated the opposite -- namely the sexual passions that drove men to create a "gay world" in late-19th to mid-20th-century New York.
(28) On this, see Nancy Cott, "Passionlessness: An Interpretation of Victorian Sexual Ideology, 1790-1850," Signs 4 (1978): 219-36.
Of course, such templates are not molded solely by a culture of de facto apartheid and a ruthless "market" economy; their use, surely, has to do with individual self-indulgence, passionlessness and passivity.