Civil Disobedience

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Related to passive resistance: Passive aggressive

Civil Disobedience

A symbolic, non-violent violation of the law, done deliberately in protest against some form of perceived injustice. Mere dissent, protest, or disobedience of the law does not qualify. The act must be nonviolent, open and visible, illegal, performed for the moral purpose of protesting an injustice, and done with the expectation of being punished.

By peacefully and openly violating the law and submitting to punishment, those engaging in civil disobedience hope to draw attention to the law they hope to reform, the injustice they hope to stop, or the policy or practice they hope to end. By calling into question the justness, fairness, Equity, or propriety of the status quo, persons engaging in civil disobedience usually appeal to some form of higher law, whether it be the divine law of god, Natural Law, or some form of moral reasoning.

The philosophical underpinnings for civil disobedience can be found in New Testament writings which report on the teachings of Jesus. They also appear in works by Cicero, Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, and Thomas Jefferson. In a famous essay entitled "Civil Disobedience," Henry David Thoreau claimed that the individual is "a higher and independent power" from which the state obtains its authority. As individuals, people must not wait for the government to recognize injustice and instigate reform, Thoreau said, because the machinery of government moves too slowly. If individuals have right on their side, then they must do right by trying to peacefully and openly change society.Civil disobedience has been extensively employed around the world by nationalist movements (e.g., mohandas gandhi used civil disobedience to protest against British colonial rule in India), Civil Rights leaders (e.g., martin luther king jr. used civil disobedience to protest against racial Segregation laws in the United States), and anti-war protestors (e.g., Muhammad Ali used civil disobedience to protest U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War), among others.

Cross-references

Civil Rights Movement; Protest.

References in periodicals archive ?
The passive resistance in the model w as represented as the applied knee torque necessary to overcome the maximum pressure differential across the opened valve induced by a maximum knee angular velocity of 330 [degrees]/s, which is characteristic of nondisabled gait with a trunkhip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis (with all joint constraints freed in the sagittal plane).
Brown was an unreasonably disproportionate level of force due to her passive resistance and the lack of severity of the underlying crime.
Drawing upon the ideas of some western intellectuals such as Leo Tolstoy, who held the belief that nonviolence is the best way to counter evil, and Henry Thoreau, whose famous essay on civil disobedience argues that people should not allow governments to overrule their consciences, Gandhi decided to scrap passive resistance and developed the strategy of non-violent resistance, which became famously known as Satayagraha (meaning the force of truth).
All the others made mistakes: the managers for their passive resistance, the inspections for not being able to overcome the resistance, the hairdresser for keeping the lawyer, the journalists for exaggerating, and the editors-in-chief for having lunch with Branko that same day, the founders of some smaller firms .
We had decided to show passive resistance on the boat.
Ayalon said those onboard the flotilla announced that they would make passive resistance but ambushed the Israeli soldiers when they got on board.
This seems to be a misunderstanding of this particular anarchist subculture in my opinion, which is about passive resistance rather than passive consumption.
The virus of passive resistance to unspeakable owners is spreading.
I was dizzy with confusion over her bizarre logic and weird understanding of King's doctrine of passive resistance.
Sandra Schneiders (NCR, March 20) encouraged women religious to assume a stance of caution and passive resistance, convinced that no genuine dialogue would take place or mutual understanding and acceptance as a result.
Dr Taylor was in every sense a passive resistance warrior who consistently sought to defy and frustrate apartheid conventions.
It seems there is a move to honor those broken and oppressed refugees who, in spite of more than 60 years of bondage, call for nonviolence or passive resistance.