This idea led me to pay particular attention to pauperism
, that hideous and enormous sore which is attached to a healthy and vigorous body.
(34) He concludes: 'The moral effects we find to have been increased misery and recklessness, showing itself in increased pauperism
(12.) Poynter, Society and Pauperism
: English Ideas on Poor Relief, 1795-1834 (London: Routledge, 1969), 276-77.
(18.) John Seed, '"Free Labour=Latent Pauperism
': Marx, Mayhew, and the 'Reserve Army of Labour' in Mid-Nineteenth-Century London," in The Peculiarities of Liberal Modernity in Imperial Britain, ed.
Mutatis mutandis, Glover's rendition of White's purposes has obvious resonance for today: his 'ambition was to produce a kind of racial common sense that would alter the climate of opinion in which immigration and pauperism
were discussed, nudging it closer towards the putative sciences of race' (p86).
Students in elite universities were assigned Ulrich Bonnell Philips' American Negro Slavery, the leading scholarly text on the subject through the first half of the 20th century, which argued that the plantations were "the best schools yet invented for the mass training of that sort of inert and backward people which the bulk of the American negroes represented." Policy makers and intellectuals generally accepted as fact the claim made in Frederick Hoffman's The Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro that "crime, pauperism
, and sexual immorality" among blacks were biologically determined.
Racist social workers argued that the Blacks had naturally lower standards of living, thus masking the extent of their "true pauperism
(25) The Our Towns report supported the interwar eugenics discourse because it classified the poor and dysfunctional as "problem families" just as eugenicists classified them into the "social problem group." (26) The Our Towns report defined the "problem family" as "always on the edge of pauperism
and crime, riddled with mental and physical defects, in and out of the Courts for child neglect, [and] a menace to the community" later noting that "it is a serious matter that no study of this class of the population exists." (27)
Among the topics are settlement and practice in London's West End 1725-1824; memories of pauperism
; migrants' difficulties in obtaining entitlement to relief in Switzerland from the 1550s to the early 20th century; agrarian change, labor organization, and welfare entitlements in the North Sea region 1650-1800; and settlement law and rural-urban relief transfers in 19th-century Belgium.
The extent of this stagnant segment is measured by D/[L.sup.s] = d/[l.sup.s] and is related to what Marx's considers as pauperism
in chapter 25, Section 4.
As a result of grim pauperism
, the solitary as well as family group suicidal rate has risen.