girdle

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In dorsal view, the pectoral girdle has three more elements: the propterygium, mesopterygium and metapterygium, the more variable of which is the mesopterygium articulating the other two.
The first one would include Urotrygon nana and Urotrygon munda, as their cranium shows reduced preorbital processes and nasal capsules slightly projected towards their ventral region, and the mesopterygium in the pectoral girdle is rounded.
The obvious point was that there are no secondary ossification centers in pectoral girdle and limb.
The best time to mention as the completion of the ossification process and the formation of all bone elements in pectoral girdle and limb is 63 days after hatching (Figure 6).
Interestingly, although there are a number of functionally significant anatomical modifications of the head and pectoral girdle that accompany the origin of inflation [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 9 OMITTED], we have not discovered any anatomical modifications that are derived for blowing taxa.
Closer examination of the pectoral girdle and bones of the flippers was facilitated after dissection and thermal hydrolysis of soft tissues and ligaments.
Musculature of pectoral girdle appears pale on lateral surface of belly.
For clarity of presentation, we have depicted the elements that make up the braincase as the neurocranial cartilage [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4E-H OMITTED], whereas those elements derived from the seven pharyngeal arches (the mandibular, hyoid, and five branchial arches) and from the pectoral girdle are presented as the pharyngeal-pectoral cartilage [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4I-L OMITTED].
SUMMARY: The cephalic and pectoral girdle structures of Pangasius macronema are described and compared with those of another representative of the same genus, Pangasius larnaudii, and of representatives of the other pangasiid genus, Helicophagus leptorhynchus and Helicophagus typus, as well as of several other catfishes, as the foundation for a discussion of the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pangasiidae.
We first attempted to use morphometrics, dentition, and vertebral count and then, for unambiguous identification, we used skeletal anatomy--namely, the chondro-neurocranium, palatoquadrate, and pectoral girdle.