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Definitions of kinematic and kinetic variables: (a) shoulder rotation, (b) pelvic rotation, (c) shoulder side-bending, (d) pelvic side-bending, (e) trunk flexion, (f) hip flexion, (g) knee flexion, (h) ankle dorsiflexion, (i) hand height, (j) head height, (k) absolute arm angle, (l) club-face aim, (m) lie angle, (n) loft angle, (o) vertical ground reaction force (VGRF), and (p) center of pressure (COP).
As shown in Figure 2, six degrees of freedom (DoFs) of pelvis can be satisfied when walking with RAPBT: actuated forward/backward movement, lateral movement, vertical movement and passive mediolateral displacement, pelvic tilt, pelvic rotation, and flexion/ extension.
Pedestrian in walking posture exhibited larger knee bending angle and pelvic rotation due to isolated single-leg contact with vehicle and nonplanar characteristic from the leg swing.
Yet this test entails visual estimation and palpation of the pelvis, which is not sufficiently sensitive to detect the early onset of posterior pelvic rotation or lumbar flexion.
[21] reported a pelvic rotation during human walk by approximately four degrees in the transverse plane and even more rotation in the frontal plane, that is, five degrees.
Writhes number, a response consisting of contraction of an abdominal wall, pelvic rotation followed by hind limb extension, was counted during continuous observation for 15 min beginning from 5 min after the injection of acetic acid.
(27) The arabesque sequence had strict temporal constraints; therefore, increased pelvic rotation likely reflected a different strategy.
When pelvic rotation occurs constantly, it may cause the knee of the standing leg to torque and the ankle to roll inward (pronate).