However, as critical penologists
would object, whenever the effectiveness of punishment is advocated--even under the impulse to target "new" powerful offenders--the punitive system as a whole always receives legitimation and the "old" conventional, powerless offenders are invariably targeted.
Nigel Walker describes this book as |an attempt to promote the amphibian way': that is, to lure philosophers on to dry land and penologists
into deep water.
There were utilitarian penologists
before Beccaria and Bentham: Aquinas was one (of sorts: secular penalties should aim at utility, God's at retributive justice); Plato was another, and he in turn was influenced by Protagoras.
Nigel Walker describes this book as 'an attempt to promote the amphibian way': that is, to lure philosophers on to dry land and penologists
into deep water.
In fact, however, a number of different groups--including prosecutors, penologists
, local party officials, and the general public--began to lobby against the "excesses," "unwarranted privileges," and "liberalism" enjoyed by prisoners.
It was BG Crowder who, after lengthy consultation with sociologists and penologists
, convinced the Army--and the Congress--to create the U.S.
agree that our incapacitation policy has reduced the crime rate, but they disagree over the amount.
However, many of the solutions require the efforts of competent and experienced psychologists, social workers, penologists
, probation officers, law enforcers, prosecutors, defense lawyers, judges, and legislators.
are beginning to argue that mass imprisonment has been a failure, and one with devastating consequences.
With NIBRS, lawmakers, academicians, sociologists, penologists
, and the American public can now better assess the Nation's crime problem by using the extensive data supplied by the law enforcement community.
records of insane asylums, universities, and churches; articles in medical, psychiatric, psychological, and legal journals; legal appeals; court records; periodicals, ephemeral handouts and other publications of the early American homosexual emancipation movement; reports of local, city, and state governments, and of federal government; reports of travellers, missionaries, explorers, anthropologists, sociologists, penologists
; passing references in histories, biographies, autobiographies, diaries; artworks (Black blues, cowboy poems, engravings, photographs); and literary works (novels, short stories, poetry, plays).
What does make sense is something penologists
have understood for years.