Penology

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Penology

The science of prison administration and rehabilitation of criminals.

References in periodicals archive ?
It would be remarkable were this not to create what penologists refer to as a "low-trust environment."
(25) And here is the starting point of formulating solutions by each and everyone one, individually and together (lawyers, forensic, penologists), materialized in criminal laws that prove each time their limits, since criminal codes and criminal procedure codes are perpetually revised.
News of the mishap further galvanized Wichern's opponents, who now included the entire liberal establishment--the liberal press, important penologists such as Mittermaier and Holtzendorff, and famous prison directors from Baden and Saxony.
For want of more promising method of reducing crime, penologists proposed using actuarial predictions to maximize the amount of crime prevented by locking up a given number of prisoners.
If the idealist philosophers read by Levin helped form Tolstoy's views on philosophical questions, the criminologists and penologists read by Nekhliudov may have played a similar role for Tolstoy's views on punishment.
1947 (obituary); and Rupert Cross, Punishment, prison and the public: An assessment of penal reform in twentieth century England by an armchair penologist (London: Stevens, 1971), pp.
As late as 1889, prominent penologist Ivan Foinitskii succinctly wrote that they "simply do not exist." (13) Although this statement oversimplifies the situation, prisons with libraries were at this time the exception rather than the rule.
Well before the 2000 election most legal professionals and penologists had come to regard disenfranchisement policies as punitive and counterproductive.
On one hand, prisoner leaders have decried sweatshop conditions, and union members have opposed private contracting as a threat to their livelihoods; on the other hand, prisoners are joined by guards and most penologists in understanding the corrosive effect of prisoner idleness on institutional order.
LOOKING AT ITALY TODAY, penologists see a curiously non-violent society which becomes progressively less murderous with every passing year.
To Rafter the entire enterprise of diagnosing and treating defective delinquents can be reduced to an attempt at "social control" of deviance, aimed at addressing middle-class fears of social and political disorder, and administered by occupational groups (psychiatry, social work, penologists, psychologists, and so on) seeking status, funding, and professional sites of power, whether inside or outside institutions.
Penologists consider "objective classification" a significant reform measure contributing to prison safety as well as regularity (and lack of favoritism) because it forces prison officials to gather and use individual information about each inmate and his or her background and adaptation to prison life.(131) This kind of decree provision contributed to the "bureaucratization" that Feeley and Rubin, like other scholars, identify as an important outcome of litigated prison reform.(132) Most significantly, though, the Civil Rights Division's participation was subject to political changes to an even greater extent than the activities of legal services offices.