bond

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bond

n. 1) written evidence of debt issued by a company with the terms of payment spelled out. A bond differs from corporate shares of stock since bond payments are pre-determined and provide a final pay-off date, while stock dividends vary depending on profitability and corporate decisions to distribute. There are two types of such bonds: "registered" in which the name of the owner is recorded by the company and "bearer" in which interest payments are made to whomever is holding the bond. 2) written guaranty or pledge which is purchased from a bonding company (usually an insurance firm) or by an individual as security (called a "bondsman") to guarantee some form of performance, including showing up in court ("bail bond"), properly complete construction or other contract terms ("performance bond"), that the bonded party will not steal or mismanage funds, that a purchased article is the real thing, or that title is good. If there is a failure then the bonding company will make good up to the amount of the bond.

bond

a written acknowledgment of an obligation to pay a sum or to perform a contract. A legal tie.

BOND, contract. An obligation or bond is a deed whereby the obligor, obliges himself, his heirs, executors and administrators, to pay a certain sum of money to another at a day appointed. But see 2 Shepl. 185. If this be all, the bond is called a single one, simplex obligatio; but there is generally a condition added, that if the obligor pays a smaller sum, or does, or omits to do some particular act, the obligation shall be void. 2 Bl. Com. 840. The word bond ex vi termini imports a sealed instrument. 2 S. & R. 502; 1 Bald. R. 129; 2 Porter, R. 19; 1 Blackf. R. 241; Harp. R. 434; 6 Verm. R. 40. See Condition; Interest of money; Penalty. It is proposed to consider: 1. The form of a bond, namely, the words by which it may be made, and the ceremonies required. 2. The condition. 3. The performance or discharge.
     2.- I. 1. There must be parties to a bond, an obligor and obligee : for where a bond was made with condition that the obligor should pay twenty pounds to such person or persons; as E. H. should, by her last will and testament in writing, name and appoint the same to be paid, and E. H. did not appoint any person to, whom the same should be paid, it was held that the money was not payable to the executors of E. H. Hob. 9. No particular form of words are essential to create an obligation, but any words which declare the intention of the parties, and denote that one is bound to the other, will be sufficient, provided the ceremonies mentioned below have been observed. Shep. Touch. 367-8; Bac. Abr. Obligations, B; Com. Dig. Obligations, B 1.
     3. - 2. It must be in writing, on paper or parchment, and if it be made on other materials it is void. Bac. Abr. Obligations, A.
     4. - 3. It must be sealed, though it is not necessary that it should be mentioned in the writing that it is sealed. As to what is a sufficient sealing, see the above case, and the word Seal.
     5. - 4. It must be delivered by the party whose bond it is, to the other. Bac. Abr. Obligations, C. But the delivery and acceptance may be by attorney. The date is not considered of the substance of a deed, and therefore a bond which either has no date or an impossible one is still good, provided the real day of its being dated or given, that is, delivered, can be proved. 2 Bl. Com. 304; Com. Dig. Fait, B 3; 3 Call, 309. See Date.
     6. - II. The condition is either for the payment of money, or for the performance of something else. In the latter case, if the condition be against some rule of law merely, positively impossible at the time of making it, uncertain or insensible, the condition alone is void, and the bond shall stand single and unconditional; for it is the folly of the obligor to enter into such an obligation, from which he can never be released. If it be to do a thing malum in se, the obligation itself is void, the whole contract being unlawful. 2 Bl. Com. 340; Bac. Abr. Conditions, K, L; Com. Dig. Conditions, D 1, D 2, D 3, D 7, D 8.
     7. - III. 1. When, by the condition of an obligation, the act to be done to the obligee is of its own nature transitory, as payment of money, delivery of charters, or the like, and no time is limited, it ought to be performed in convenient time. 6 Co. 31 Co. Lit. 208; Roll. Abr. 436.
     8. - 2. A payment before the day is good; Co. Lit. 212, a; or before action brought. 10 Mass. 419; 11 Mass. 217.
     9. - 3. If the condition be to do a thing within a certain time, it may be performed the last day of the time appointed. Bac. Abr. Conditions, P 3.
    10. - 4. If the condition be to do an act, without limiting any time, he who has the benefit may do it at what time he pleases. Com. Dig. Conditions, G 3.
    11. - 5. When the place where the act to be performed is agreed upon, the party who is to perform it, is not obliged to seek the opposite party elsewhere; nor is he to whom it is to be performed bound to accept of the performance in another place. Roll. 445, 446 Com. Dig. Conditions, G 9 Bac. Abr. Conditions, P 4. See Performance.
    12. - 6. For what amounts to a breach of a condition in a bond see Bac. Abr. Conditions, 0; Com. Dig. Conditions, M; and this Dict. tit. Breach.

References in periodicals archive ?
Burstyn, "Hydrolysis of unactivated peptide bonds by a macrocyclic copper(II) complex: Cu([9] aneN3)Cl2 hydrolyzes both dipeptides and proteins," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.
hydrophobic residues, miehei clots milk 11 Imperfect yeast Hydrolyzed protein Candida albicans (preferential cleavage at the carboxyl of hydrophobic aa, activates trypsinogen, and degrades keratin 12 Saccharomyces Hydrolysis of proteins cerevisiae with broad specificity for peptide bonds 13 Rhodotorula glutinis Cleaves and Cladosporium sp benzyloxycarbonyl- Lys- + -Ala-Ala-Ala and activates trypsinogen 14 Acrocylindrium sp.
The authors attributed this difference not only to the specific ability of the enzyme to break the peptide bonds but also to the pH of the medium.
The analyses dealt with all six bond angles involving nonH atoms of the protein backbone ([C.sup.[beta]][C.sup.[alpha]]C, N[C.sup.[alpha]][C.sup.[beta]], [C.sup.[alpha]]CO, [C.sup.[alpha]]C[N.sup.+1], OC[N.sup.+] , and [C.sup.-1]N[C.sup.[alpha]]) and two parameters that describe the peptide bond distortions ([DELTA][omega] and [[theta].sub.C]) (Figure 1).
Under unstrained conditions most peptide bonds adopt the trans isomeric form, mainly because of the weaker steric repulsion between hydroxyl and carboxyl group effects in the molecule when compared to the cis.
All peptide bonds in short peptides would be available for immediate interaction with copper, as none of the peptide bonds will be buried within a globular structure; no denaturation would be required before interaction with copper.
Homocysteine thiolactone, a bioactive form of Hcy, has an intramolecular ester component that is likely to bind to proteins by a peptide bond under physiologic conditions (7-9).
This is specific for selective hydrolysis as well as for peptide bonds lying close to certain residues of amino acid (Khantaphant et al., 2008).
The MOU will support the clinical research and joint R&D in the technology that extracts adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) using the ultrasound technology MEDI FUTURES has independently-developed and without collagenase (an enzyme that breaks down peptide bonds in collagen).
It is a series of photochemical and chemical steps to break the peptide bonds of a protein using light energy, they say.
In eukaryotic cells, proteasomes are the largest, most important protein complex machines that degrade damaged proteins using proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds. Proteins are tagged for degradation with a small protein called ubiquitin.