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Smoking and betel nut chewing both have been implicated on numerous occasions for being involved in predisposing an individual to developing periodontal disease.
Periodontal disease is caused by an inflammatory reaction to a bacterial infection below the gum line, and it can lead to swelling, irritation, receding gums, and tooth loss if left untreated.
Multilevel hierarchal model (Figure 5): The 1997 conceptual model of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease are still relevant today; however, the framework would now be based on a multilevel hierarchical organization, and the interactions are reflected in gene, protein, and metabolite expression patterns.
Periodontal disease has been reported to cause an increase in the C-reactive protein levels in patients.
This describes the co-morbidity that joins obesity and periodontal disease.
Typically, periodontal disease causes no symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage (see chart for a list of periodontal disease symptoms).
The etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease is complex.
Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the gum tissue and other structures supporting the teeth.
Today, interestingly, we know that bacterial vaginosis and periodontal disease each present our patients with a similar magnitude of increased risk for preterm delivery: a two- to threefold increased risk.
This study shows that periodontal disease is a bigger problem than we all thought," says Samuel Low, associate dean and professor of periodontology at the University of Florida College of Dentistry, and president of the American Academy of Periodontology.