Smoking and betel nut chewing both have been implicated on numerous occasions for being involved in predisposing an individual to developing periodontal disease
The present descriptive review confirms the association between periodontal disease
is caused by an inflammatory reaction to a bacterial infection below the gum line, and it can lead to swelling, irritation, receding gums, and tooth loss if left untreated.
Multilevel hierarchal model (Figure 5): The 1997 conceptual model of the pathogenesis of periodontal disease
are still relevant today; however, the framework would now be based on a multilevel hierarchical organization, and the interactions are reflected in gene, protein, and metabolite expression patterns.
has been reported to cause an increase in the C-reactive protein levels in patients.
This describes the co-morbidity that joins obesity and periodontal disease
Typically, periodontal disease
causes no symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage (see chart for a list of periodontal disease
The etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease
is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the gum tissue and other structures supporting the teeth.
Consequently, periodontal disease
can aggravate arterial disease.
Today, interestingly, we know that bacterial vaginosis and periodontal disease
each present our patients with a similar magnitude of increased risk for preterm delivery: a two- to threefold increased risk.
This study shows that periodontal disease
is a bigger problem than we all thought," says Samuel Low, associate dean and professor of periodontology at the University of Florida College of Dentistry, and president of the American Academy of Periodontology.