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Related to permanent deformation: Plastic deformation
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This permanent deformation of the asphalt layer occurs when both high temperatures and high loads are present.
In this paper the main objective was to verify the durability of various road structures and verification of design methods, which are used with application of standard FEM programs and selected empirical equations, for determining the fatigue life and the level of permanent deformation.
In this case, moisture effects on wheel path rutting as changes in the permanent deformation of AC due to plastic flow are defined.
Therefore, the longer the material is deformed (as occurs when impressions are removed slowly from the mouth or separated slowly from a poured model), then the longer time it takes for elastic recovery and the possibility of permanent deformation becomes higher.
While common glasses are generally strong, hard, and resistant to permanent deformation, they tend to easily crack or shatter.
Most critical among these is viscous flow which results in permanent deformation in traffic asphalt pavement due to repeated loading forces.
After partially plastic bending, permanent deformation and residual stresses remain after unloading [3].
Ironically, cross-linked thermoset polymers are not supposed to flow as other polymers, but some form of movement or reshaping is indicated by the permanent deformation seen in laminate x-sections after reflow or solder shock--the laminate is now longer between vias than in the zone directly next to them (FIGURE 3C).
Visual inspection of the fragments indicated that the material assumed little or no permanent deformation throughout the test (Figure 9).
Yield strength, incidentally, relates to the amount of force applied at which permanent deformation occurs; tensile strength has to do with the tension load before the material fractures.
They also concluded that permanent deformation in the flow direction, such that the leading edge of the bore is deflected by more than 1[degrees] from the unbent position, could result in under-measurement of the flow by several percent.
The combination of motion and stress analysis and full inertial effects allowed engineers to analyze the motion and its results, such as impact, buckling, and permanent deformation.

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