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Related to personhood: Personhood theory, Corporate personhood


In general usage, a human being; by statute, however, the term can include firms, labor organizations, partnerships, associations, corporations, legal representatives, trustees, trustees in Bankruptcy, or receivers.

A corporation is a "person" for purposes of the constitutional guarantees of equal protection of laws and Due Process of Law.

Foreign governments otherwise eligible to sue in United States courts are "persons" entitled to institute a suit for treble damages for alleged antitrust violations under the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C.A. § 12 et seq.).

Illegitimate children are "persons" within the meaning of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

The phrase interested person refers to heirs, devisees, children, spouses, creditors, beneficiaries, and any others having a property right in, or a claim against, a trust estate or the estate of a decedent, ward, or protected person. It also refers to personal representatives and to fiduciaries.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


n. 1) a human being. 2) a corporation treated as having the rights and obligations of a person. Counties and cities can be treated as a person in the same manner as a corporation. However, corporations, counties and cities cannot have the emotions of humans such as malice, and therefore are not liable for punitive damages. (See: party, corporation)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.


the object of legal rights. There are two kinds of legal person: human beings and artificial persons such as corporations. A PARTNERSHIP in England is not a separate legal person but in Scotland it is said to have quasi-personality.
Collins Dictionary of Law © W.J. Stewart, 2006

PERSON. This word is applied to men, women and children, who are called natural persons. In law, man and person are not exactly synonymous terms. Any human being is a man, whether he be a member of society or not, whatever may be the rank he holds, or whatever may be his age, sex, &c. A person is a man considered according to the rank he holds in society, with all the rights to which the place he holds entitles him, and the duties which it imposes. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 137.
     2. It is also used to denote a corporation which is an artificial person. 1 Bl. Com. 123; 4 Bing. 669; C. 33 Eng. C. L R. 488; Woodes. Lect. 116; Bac. Us. 57; 1 Mod. 164.
     3. But when the word "Persons" is spoken of in legislative acts, natural persons will be intended, unless something appear in the context to show that it applies to artificial persons. 1 Scam. R. 178.
     4. Natural persons are divided into males, or men; and females or women. Men are capable of all kinds of engagements and functions, unless by reasons applying to particular individuals. Women cannot be appointed to any public office, nor perform any civil functions, except those which the law specially declares them capable of exercising. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 25.
     5. They are also sometimes divided into free persons and slaves. Freemen are those who have preserved their natural liberty, that is to say, who have the right of doing what is not forbidden by the law. A slave is one who is in the power of a master to whom he belongs. Slaves are sometimes ranked not with persons but things. But sometimes they are considered as persons for example, a negro is in contemplation of law a person, so as to be capable of committing a riot in conjunction with white men. 1 Bay, 358. Vide Man.
     6. Persons are also divided into citizens, (q.v.) and aliens, (q.v.) when viewed with regard to their political rights. When they are considered in relation to their civil rights, they are living or civilly dead; vide Civil Death; outlaws; and infamous persons.
     7. Persons are divided into legitimates and bastards, when examined as to their rights by birth.
     8. When viewed in their domestic relations, they are divided into parents and children; husbands and wives; guardians and wards; and masters and servants son, as it is understood in law, see 1 Toull. n. 168; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1890, note.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
He takes the astrological signs as dramatis personae, constructing a range of personhoods beginning in Aries and ending in Pisces.
In addition to the fact that personhood amendments are the prolife movement's second strategy after TRAP laws, Professor Mary Ziegler identified two reasons to believe that the movement will increasingly push these amendments.
Thus, Garrett Epps tells us not to "blame" corporate personhood for the outcome in Citizens United (41) and Kent Greenfield, a participant in this symposium, argues that corporate personhood is a "red herring" which obscures more important issues.
Jolly 1992; LiPuma 1998, 2001), while acknowledging these reservations, have continued to hold these concepts as central in explorations of the always shifting and emergent dynamics of personhood. As Holly Wardlow (2006) approaches her study of women of the Huli, there is no singular Huli culture (much less a singular 'Melanesia') onto which relational/individual personhood or gift/commodity exchange can be mapped.
(1.) According to NARAL, while "details vary, 'personhood' measures typically change a state's definition of the word 'Person' to include a fertilized egg, embryo, or fetus, with the intent of outlawing abortion." Natalie's placard also includes a brief description of the Oklahoma Personhood bill and how it would impact women.
It was the first time in the nation that fetal personhood would appear as a state constitutional amendment on a ballot initiative.
Alexander Wendt identifies Arnold Wolfer's essay "The Actors of International Politics," written in 1959, as the only other major work sustaining debate on state personhood. According to Wendt, Wolfer is the "originator" of this debate, insisting that "if state behavior is to be intelligible and to any degree predictable, states must be assumed to possess psychological traits of the kind known to the observer through introspection and through acquaintance with other human beings" (Wolfer, 1962, p.
With chapters centered on the defiant gallows confession of Abraham Johnstone, a free black man hanged in 1797; Thomas Grey's separation of criminal intent from criminal act in the 1831 Confessions of Nat Turner; William Seward's insanity defense in the murder trial of William Freeman in 1846; and the legal and fictional accounts of white slave traders in the 1840s and 1850s, DeLombard identifies the ways in which a movement away from criminal responsibility gradually eroded the legal personhood that culpability activated.
Communal personhood is therefore the idea that the human person has a natural sociality that defines his being.
And next, it argues that Communitarian personhood from an African standpoint provides the virtues of cooperative togetherness, liberty, solidarity, respect etc.