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While the consumersa assessment of the economic situation in the country over the last 12 months was less negative in comparison with the previous inquiry,there was a degree of pessimism in their expectations about the next 12 months, the countryas statistical office NSI announced on Thursday.
Defensive pessimism is an anticipatory strategy that emerges when negative self-schemas are activated, but which entails a high level of effort.
Chang et al (2008) indicated that the most accepted definition of the two constructs was offered by Scheier et al (1978) who defined optimism and pessimism as generalized positive and negative outcome expectancies.
Groundless optimism is dangerous but I think that groundless pessimism is also dangerous.
This book is an intellectual history of pessimism in the philosophical sense.
Keywords: optimism, pessimism, cross-cultural study, Kuwaiti students, Omani students.
Nietzsche's attribution of pessimism or strong pessimism (is there any weak pessimism?
With growing pessimism, he painted bizarre scenes populated with outlandish creatures and monsters engaged in witchcraft, cannibalism, and carnage.
Despair or pessimism is irrelevant: "If we are indeed in as bad a state as I take us to be in, pessimism will turn out to be one more cultural luxury that we shall have to dispense with in order to survive.
The argument presented by Hamlet is part of the pessimism that culminates at this point of the play, a pessimism influenced by the philosophical skepticism of what Hiram Haydn called the sixteenth-century "counter-Renaissance," which severely challenged the optimism of Renaissance humanism.
As the result of negative experiences, they may develop feelings of pessimism.
The West needs to be more realistic and even-tempered about China, rather than indulging in mood swings between extreme optimism and extreme pessimism.