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Related to pharyngeal arch: pharyngeal pouch, second pharyngeal arch
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Another fact to be taken into consideration is that mandible is the derivative of the same pharyngeal arch. The Malocclusion of teeth and mandibular hypoplasia is due to the lack of lingual muscular stimulus.14 Speech development may be delayed and it is slurred (particularlythe lingual consonants).13 However, in some documented cases, speech defects are surprisingly relatively minor.
Estimating fork lengths of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, from measurement of pharyngeal arches. Can.
In vertebrates, much of the head skeleton is derived from neural crest precursors that migrate into the pharyngeal arches from the midbrain and specific rhombomeres of the hindbrain (Langille and Hall, 1988, 1993).
All members of the genus Nocomis have relatively stout pharyngeal dentition, but the pharyngeal arch and teeth of the bull chub are the most robust of all Nocomis species, especially in larger fish (Lachner and Jenkins, 1971), and are well-adapted for crushing mollusks (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1993).
Posterior third, or root of the tongue develops from second and third part of fourth pharyngeal arch. Third arch overgrows the second so the root is supplied by glossopharyngeal nerve.
The muscle structures derived from the first pharyngeal arch, such as the anterior belly of the digastric muscle, originate from the original mesoderm of the arch (Moore & Persaud).
Two lateral lingual swellings and one median swelling Tuberculum impar from 1st pharyngeal arch forms the anterior 2/3rd of the body of the tongue.