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Related to physiological dependence: psychological dependence
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The association between the presence or absence of an individual SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence on SB with the presence or absence of major repeater status was tested for significance with the Fisher exact test and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals.
Several options are available for patients who, like Sam, have signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal as a result of physiological dependence.
Within addiction science, questions about which substances or activities are able to cause genuine physiological dependence have been sidelined by the rise of a neuroscientific paradigm that emphasizes brain chemistry rather than the specific properties of different drugs (Volkow & Li, 2004).
This article summarizes the detection, confirmation, and fine mapping of several QTLs that have large effects on ethanol withdrawal in mice using a variety of approaches, including robust behavioral models of physiological dependence and associated withdrawal following acute and chronic ethanol exposure, positional cloning, sequence and expression analyses, and novel genetic animal models.
alcohol) both psychological and physiological dependence occur; for others (e.
Whether a person receives opiates prescribed by a physician or obtains them illegally, the physiological dependence is the same.

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