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9B), and many vacuoles also appeared in the cytoplasm of the epithelial and pillar cells (Figs.
Histology and ultrastructure analyses showed that saponins had a negative effect on the secondary lamellae of fish gills, where they caused the detachment of the epithelia, edema and pore formation at the level of the epithelial cells and pillar cells leading to their destruction.
5[per thousands], 21[per thousands], or 28[per thousands]) were evaluated morphometrically using as criteria the alterations induced in the thickness (in micrometers) of the intralamellar septal cells and the pillar cell flanges; and the height (in micrometers) and numerical density (as microvilli/micrometer of apical membrane) of the apical microvilli on the pillar cells.
To estimate the thickness of the pillar cell flanges, valid transects were single planes in which a line segment intersected at least one cell margin.
In the secondary lamella, there were hypertrophy of the secretory cells, epithelial lifting, alteration of the structure, pyknotic nucleus of the pillar cells, secretion of mucus in interlamellar space, infiltration of cells of the immune system, fusion and occurrence of aneurysms of various sizes in some secondary lamellae (Figure 2).
These contaminants cause deleterious changes in cellular structures, including the epithelium and pillar cells (Laurent and Perry 1991; Randall et al.