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On 22 February 1896, he submitted his article Sur le reflexe cutane plantaire dans certaines affections organiques du systeme nerveux central (On the cutaneous plantar reflex in certain organic affections of the central nervous system) to the Society of Biology (1) in which he first described the reflex we now call the Babinski sign.
The Babinski sign refers to the pathological form of the plantar reflex, marked by extension of the hallus and fanning out of the rest of the toes.
He actually called the extensor plantar reflex "the great toe sign," and what he called the Babinski sign was the failure of the platysma muscle to contract on the side of a hemiparesis.