Gout

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GOUT, med. jur. contracts. An inflammation of the fibrous and ligamentous parts of the joints.
     2. In cases of insurance on lives, when there is warranty of health, it seems that a man subject to the gout, is a life capable of being, insured, if he has no sickness at the time to make it an unequal contract. 2 Park, Ins. 583.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
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Aulus Cornelius Celsus (30 A.D.) described the correlation between podagra and excessive alcohol intake; he also described the association between gout and the renal disease.
nee facit hoc vitio, sed corpora foeda podagra et senis amplexus culta puella fugit.
Uncommon symptoms included tophi, swelling, podagra, and redness, which are cardinal signs of gouty arthritis.
(21) During the Renaissance, 'gout' (gotta or podagra) was the name given to virtually any disease of the joints or extremities, (22) especially when accompanied by swelling.
'Themes and Composition in Lucian's Podagra', RhM 122, 149-154.
The first toe is the most commonly involved joint (gouty pain in the great toe is called podagra).
Palmer and Klaus Speckenbach, Trdume and Krauter (Cologne and Vienna: Bohlau, 1990), and Barbara Gartner, Johannes Widmanns 'Behende vnd hubsche Rechenung' Die Textsorte 'Rechenbuch' in der Fruhen Neuzeit (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 2000); much early modern literature on gout is listed in my article 'Minerva and das Podagra', in Dialoge: Sprachliche Kommunikation in and zwischen Texten im deutschen Mittelalter, ed.
The first written reference to gout dates to 2600 BC, when Egyptians first described podagra, or gouty arthritis, usually of the big toe, and today understood as uric acid arthropathy.