Aulus Cornelius Celsus (30 A.D.) described the correlation between podagra
and excessive alcohol intake; he also described the association between gout and the renal disease.
nee facit hoc vitio, sed corpora foeda podagra
et senis amplexus culta puella fugit.
Uncommon symptoms included tophi, swelling, podagra
, and redness, which are cardinal signs of gouty arthritis.
(21) During the Renaissance, 'gout' (gotta or podagra
) was the name given to virtually any disease of the joints or extremities, (22) especially when accompanied by swelling.
'Themes and Composition in Lucian's Podagra
', RhM 122, 149-154.
The first toe is the most commonly involved joint (gouty pain in the great toe is called podagra
Palmer and Klaus Speckenbach, Trdume and Krauter (Cologne and Vienna: Bohlau, 1990), and Barbara Gartner, Johannes Widmanns 'Behende vnd hubsche Rechenung' Die Textsorte 'Rechenbuch' in der Fruhen Neuzeit (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 2000); much early modern literature on gout is listed in my article 'Minerva and das Podagra
', in Dialoge: Sprachliche Kommunikation in and zwischen Texten im deutschen Mittelalter, ed.
The first written reference to gout dates to 2600 BC, when Egyptians first described podagra
, or gouty arthritis, usually of the big toe, and today understood as uric acid arthropathy.