Poison

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Poison

Any substance dangerous to living organisms that if applied internally or externally, destroy the action of vital functions or prevent the Continuance of life.

Economic poisons are those substances that are used to control insects, weeds, fungi, bacteria, rodents, predatory animals, or other pests. Economic poisons are useful to society but are still dangerous.

The way a poison is controlled depends on its potential for harm, its usefulness, and the reasons for its use. The law has a right and a duty pursuant to the Police Power of a state to control substances that can do great harm.

In the past, an individual who was harmed by a poison that had been handled in a careless manner could institute a lawsuit for damages against the person who had mishandled the chemical. As time went on, state statutes prescribed the circumstances under which someone was legally liable for injuries caused by a poison. For example, a sale to anyone under sixteen years of age was unlawful, and a seller was required to ensure that the buyer understood that the chemical was poisonous. It was not unusual for all poisons, drugs, and narcotics to be covered by the same statutory scheme.

Specialized statutes currently regulate poisons. Pesticides must be registered with the federal government, and those denied registration cannot be used. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a number of regulations governing the use of approved pesticides. Federal law also prohibits unauthorized adulteration of any product with a poisonous substance and requires clear labeling for anything sold with a poisonous ingredient. It might not be sufficient to list all the chemicals in a container or even to put the word POISON on the label. The manufacturer should also warn of the injuries that are likely to occur and the conditions under which the poison will cause harm. Stricter standards are applied to household products than to poisonous products intended to be used in a factory, on a farm, or by a specially trained person. Poisonous food products are banned. Under other federal regulations, pesticide residues on foods are prohibited above certain low tolerance levels.

Certain provisions under federal law seek to protect children from poisoning. Special packaging is required for some household products so that a child will not mistake them for food or will not be able to open containers. Federal funds are available for local programs to reduce or eliminate the danger of poisoning from lead-based paint. Under the Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C.A. § 1261 et seq.), toys containing poisonous substances can be banned or subjected to recall.

See: contaminate, degenerate, infect, pervert, pollute, taint, virulent, vitiate

POISON, crim. law. Those substances which, when applied to the organs of the body, are capable of altering or destroying, in a majority of cases, some or all of the functions necessary to life, are called poisons. 3 Fodere, Traite de Med. Leg. 449; Guy, Med. Jur. 520.
     2. When administered with a felonious intent of committing, murder, if. death ensues, it is murder the most detestable, because it can of all others, be least prevented by manhood or forethought. It is a deliberate act necessarily implying malice. 1 Russ. Cr. 429. For the signs which indicate poisoning, vide 2 Beck's Med. Jurisp. ch. 16, p. 236, et seq.; Cooper's Med. Jurisp. 47; Ryan's Med. Jurisp. ch. 15, p. 202, et seq.; Traill, Med. Jur. 109.

References in periodicals archive ?
Nevertheless, more than 50% of parents preferred to use the local poison center in case of an emergency (25).
Most poisoning exposures in infants are not serious and can be safely managed at home after contacting a poison center. Poisoning is more challenging in neonates because of physiological, behavioral and biological differences.
Data from April 2015 show that on average, every three hours a poison center received a call about a young child exposed to an e-cigarette or liquid nicotine--that's more than seven children each day.
poison centers received 6,724 energy product calls from June 2010 to July 2013.
However, according to the GAO report, FDA may not be receiving information on all adverse events, as consumers and others may not be voluntarily reporting these events to FDA, although they may be contacting poison centers about some of these events.
Donna Seger, executive director of the Tennessee Poison Center and professor of Clinical Medicine at Vanderbilt University, said that 40 mg of caffeine per stick of gum is unlikely to sicken a teenager or an adult, but a tiny tot can be affected if they manage to chew a few too many sticks.
Doctors and nurses in hospitals emergency rooms also rely on the poison control centers for fast consultations, according to Miguel Fernandez, managing director of the South Texas Poison Center in San Antonio.
The projects included the construction of a SR409 million children and maternity hospital with 200 beds, a 200-bed mental health hospital capacity at a cost of SR200 million, a regional laboratory, blood bank and a poison center at a cost of SR60 million and four central warehouses at a cost of SR16 million.
The projects included the construction of a $109m children and maternity 200 bed hospital, a $53.4m mental health 200 bed hospital, a $16m regional laboratory, blood bank and poison center, and four central warehouses for $4.2m.
Additionally, a count of all opiate exposures by individual county for each year reported to the Kentucky Regional Poison Center was obtained.