Poison

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Poison

Any substance dangerous to living organisms that if applied internally or externally, destroy the action of vital functions or prevent the Continuance of life.

Economic poisons are those substances that are used to control insects, weeds, fungi, bacteria, rodents, predatory animals, or other pests. Economic poisons are useful to society but are still dangerous.

The way a poison is controlled depends on its potential for harm, its usefulness, and the reasons for its use. The law has a right and a duty pursuant to the Police Power of a state to control substances that can do great harm.

In the past, an individual who was harmed by a poison that had been handled in a careless manner could institute a lawsuit for damages against the person who had mishandled the chemical. As time went on, state statutes prescribed the circumstances under which someone was legally liable for injuries caused by a poison. For example, a sale to anyone under sixteen years of age was unlawful, and a seller was required to ensure that the buyer understood that the chemical was poisonous. It was not unusual for all poisons, drugs, and narcotics to be covered by the same statutory scheme.

Specialized statutes currently regulate poisons. Pesticides must be registered with the federal government, and those denied registration cannot be used. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a number of regulations governing the use of approved pesticides. Federal law also prohibits unauthorized adulteration of any product with a poisonous substance and requires clear labeling for anything sold with a poisonous ingredient. It might not be sufficient to list all the chemicals in a container or even to put the word POISON on the label. The manufacturer should also warn of the injuries that are likely to occur and the conditions under which the poison will cause harm. Stricter standards are applied to household products than to poisonous products intended to be used in a factory, on a farm, or by a specially trained person. Poisonous food products are banned. Under other federal regulations, pesticide residues on foods are prohibited above certain low tolerance levels.

Certain provisions under federal law seek to protect children from poisoning. Special packaging is required for some household products so that a child will not mistake them for food or will not be able to open containers. Federal funds are available for local programs to reduce or eliminate the danger of poisoning from lead-based paint. Under the Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C.A. § 1261 et seq.), toys containing poisonous substances can be banned or subjected to recall.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

POISON, crim. law. Those substances which, when applied to the organs of the body, are capable of altering or destroying, in a majority of cases, some or all of the functions necessary to life, are called poisons. 3 Fodere, Traite de Med. Leg. 449; Guy, Med. Jur. 520.
     2. When administered with a felonious intent of committing, murder, if. death ensues, it is murder the most detestable, because it can of all others, be least prevented by manhood or forethought. It is a deliberate act necessarily implying malice. 1 Russ. Cr. 429. For the signs which indicate poisoning, vide 2 Beck's Med. Jurisp. ch. 16, p. 236, et seq.; Cooper's Med. Jurisp. 47; Ryan's Med. Jurisp. ch. 15, p. 202, et seq.; Traill, Med. Jur. 109.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Poison hemlock can grow up to 3 m in height, and can be recognized
Poison hemlock is endemic to Europe and west Asia; however, it has
association between poison hemlock and livestock toxicity has been
Poison hemlock has been reported to induce symptoms of acute
Due to some similarities in appearance, the leaves of poison hemlock can
birds (e.g., quails) that have previously ingested poison hemlock seeds
(37) To add further to the confusion, the English word 'hemlock' is used to refer to poison hemlock, water hemlock, hemlock water dropwort, lesser hemlock (also known as fool's parsley) and other herbs as well.
Harley was an enthusiastic advocate for the therapeutic use of poison hemlock. (45) He experimented on himself as a 'normal control' and on animals of various species, keeping detailed records of both his clinical work and of his experiments.
What is the use-by date for a preparation of poison hemlock? Tacitus tells us that the poison had been provided earlier, (64) but supplies no information on how much earlier, how long Seneca's hemlock had been kept, or in what form.
This case provides a chilling demonstration of the lethal properties of poison hemlock.
(80) Coniine, the main toxin of poison hemlock, dissolves more easily in alcohol than in water.
Aconite, Allspice, Black Snakeroot, Bloodroot, Blue Cohosh, Boxwood, Celandine, Common Poppy, Crotalaria, Crow Poison, Death Camas, Dicentra, False Hellebore, False Jessamine, Fume wort, Hellebore, Hemp, Horse Nettle, Indian Hemp, Indian poke, Jimson weed, Larkspur, Lobelia, Lupines, Marijuana, Monkshood, Moonseed, Night shade, Pink Death, Camas Poison, Darnel, Poison Hemlock, Poison rye grass, Rattleweed, Rock Poppy, Spider Lily, Spotted cowbane, Spotted Water Hemlock, Stagger grass, Staggerweed, Sweet Shrub, Thorn Apple, Varebells, Wild Parsnip, Wolfs-bane, Yellow Jessamine.