Most of the associations observed in boys were similar to those observed in girls; however, some were in the opposite directions [e.g., when comparing the second quintile to the third quintile of urinary Mn concentrations in the third trimester, the ponderal index
for boys reduced by -0.20 (95% CI: -0.39, -0.01) kg/[m.sup.3], but the ponderal index
for girls increased by 0.13 (95% CI: -0.10, 0.37) kg/[m.sup.3], p for interaction >0.0210].
Additionally, mothers who were overweight or obese gave birth to children with a 0.5 kg/[m.sup.3] higher ponderal index
, on average, though this difference was only marginally statistically significant (p = 0.07).
Leptin concentrations in cord blood were significantly higher in females than in males, and concentrations of leptin increased significantly with increasing birth weight, birth weight according to gestational age, and ponderal index
(all P values <0.0001).
In a fully adjusted model for the entire population (model 3), higher MeHg was significantly associated with decreasing ponderal index
, but not other outcomes.
Newborn boys had considerably higher absolute body weight at birth than girls (P = 0.025), but there was no difference in SDS of body weight, body length, ponderal index
, or gestational age with respect to sex.
(n = 229), a marker of asymmetrical growth retardation thought to be a result of fetal insult, was defined as 100 x [birth weight (grams)/length (cubic centimeters)] (Sparks et al.
Within the 10 studies, there were 9 data sets on birth weight, 5 data sets on length, 4 data sets on ponderal index
, and 4 data sets on chest circumference.
Considered parameters of new borns were head circumference, chest circumference, Ponderal index
, head length ratio, Gestational age, birth weight and birth length of infants.
Further adjustment for ponderal index
(kg/m3) attenuated most of the Pearson correlation coefficients to some degree and caused some of the previously significant associations (systolic blood pressure, factor VIIc, triglyceride concentration, apolipoprotein B, and postload insulin concentration) to lose their statistical significance.
The relation ship between IUGR and adult disease is often studied using measures such as the ponderal index
(birth weight x 100/crown-heel length (3)).
Cord serum concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA were not associated with birth weight or length but were inversely associated with head circumference and ponderal index
(Apelberg et al.
In addition to revealing a statistically significant correlation between infants born with higher levels of PFOS and PFOA and decreased birth weight and head circumference, the Johns Hopkins study unearthed a correlation between the compounds and the scores the babies earned on the ponderal index
, which measures fetal body mass and can serve as a rough approximation of nutritional status.