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The poriferans showed no significant differences in their P contents, with values close to 0.43% d.w.
Adherens junctions are ubiquitous in epithelia of metazoans, except for some poriferans (Dickinson et al., 2011; Leys and Riesgo, 2011; Miller et al., 2013).
The sponges, Poriferans, were found to have some of the greatest diversity of both body size and species, ranging from microscopic to the size of an automobile.
Cambrian tropical mudflats were characterized by the adaptive radiation of two contrasting groups: the vagile arthropods and the sessile poriferans. Arthropods were later replaced as the dominant benthic taxon by polychaetes.
Dolmer (2002) observed reduced numbers of poriferans, echinoderms, anthozoans, molluscs, crustaceans, and ascidians in dredged areas four months after dredging for mussels.
In tropical waters, photosynthetic symbiosis is known to occur in various metazoans, such as poriferans, cnidarians, flatworms, bivalves, nudibranchs, and ascidians.
This pattern of junction development parallels in some respects the evolutionary history of cell-cell junctions, with poriferans exhibiting transient spot junctions, and belt-like junctions forming in cnidarian, ctenophore, and bilaterian taxa (Green and Bergquist, 1982; see Fig.