Second, we sought to determine whether aversive (as opposed to neutral) stimuli could be conditioned as positive reinforcers
for avoidance responding.
For Rob and Ian, the positive reinforcer
was a naturally-occurring reinforcer based on the peer's reaction to the target behavior.
with an "improving set of conditions" through the delivery of positive reinforcers
Schedule-induced aggression: Access to an attackable taiga bird as a positive reinforcer
Based on their definition, the CVO concept can only describe free-operant situations in which repetitions of a response can produce repeated presentations of a positive reinforcer
and symmetrically cannot describe or explain any other complex motivational relations.
For one thing, Skinner's (1953) definition of punishment as the response-contingent presentation of a negative reinforcer or the removal of a positive reinforcer
requires that negative and positive reinforcers
are actually identified initially through negative and positive reinforcement procedures, respectively.
Important facets of the behavior of many chairpersons are controlled by the positive reinforcer
of continuing in the position.
The consequence for Gingrich was a significant boost in his trajectory to the speakership, surely a positive reinforcer
NCR procedures), a stimulus demonstrated to be a positive reinforcer
in another setting is delivered at preset intervals regardless of the occurrence or non-occurrence of behavior.
Marked individual differences are most evident when subjects respond for a positive reinforcer
that is immediately "consumable," or "intrinsically reinforcing" (Navarick, 1996).
The present study assessed the potential usefulness of a research strategy comprising two major features: the delivery of an immediately consumable (intrinsic) positive reinforcer
(videos), and the presentation of instructions that inform subjects of the variables to be manipulated during the session.
Peter (2014) subsequently replicated these findings with children who engaged in problem behavior maintained by social positive reinforcers