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In its role as a peripheral hormone, oxytocin is released into the circulation from the posterior pituitary, enhancing uterine contractions during labor and, together with prolactin, enhancing milk release during lactation (Leng et al.
Posterior pituitary bright spot could be seen in all the cases of microadenomas except for one case, but in macroadenoma it was not even seen in single case.
Normal posterior gland may be included as a small fragment in what is otherwise obviously a pituitary adenoma or some other sellar region mass (Figure 3, f), or may be the majority of a small biopsy sample, especially if the neurosurgeon is resecting a cystic lesion that occurs at the junction between anterior and posterior pituitary gland, that is, a Rathke cleft cyst.
This indicated that a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for ANP release and, subsequently, diuresis and natriuresis.
An ectopic posterior pituitary gland is a rare condition and may present with an empty pituitary fossa, hypoplasia or absence of the infundibular stalk and resultant short stature due to growth hormone deficiency.[1] It may be associated with septo-optic dysplasia, Chiari I malformation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, Kallmann sydrome and peri-ventricular heterotopias.[1,2] The location of the ectopic lobe can vary, but it is most commonly located along the median eminence in the floor of the third ventricle.[1,2]
In the early postoperative phase, assessing anterior and posterior pituitary dysfunction is a high priority that includes monitoring pituitary-adrenal axis, DI, SIADH, and cerebral salt waste syndrome (CSW).
The predilection of tumours to metastasize to posterior pituitary may be due to the fact that the neural portion has a blood supply directly from the systemic circulation while the anterior lobe is supplied by the hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal system.6 In the clinical context of a known cancer patient presenting with diabetes insipidus, MRI of pituitary fossa is very useful in demonstrating metastasis to the pituitary.7 Hypophysis, stalk, cavernous sinuses, sphenoid sinus and optic chiasma are well evaluated on coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MRI both before and after Gadolinium injection.
DI may occur due to disruption of the hypothalamo-pituitary stalk or trauma to the posterior pituitary gland temporarily impairing anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) secretion (6).
The puzzling protein acts as control knob and may adjust the release of the two hormones that come almost exclusively from the posterior pituitary: oxytocin, which controls many reproductive functions, and vasopressin, which controls fluid balance.
My postdoctoral work focused on developing quantitative methods (radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography) for measuring physiological changes in the posterior pituitary hormones vasopressin and oxytocin.
The posterior pituitary gland is also involved with the regulation of reproduction.

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