praetor


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Related to praetor: consul
See: judge

PRAETOR, Roman civil law. A municipal officer of Rome, so called because, (praeiret populo,) he went before or took precedence of the people. The consuls were at first called praetors. Liv. Hist. III. 55. He was a sort of minister of justice, invested with certain legislative powers, especially in regard to the forms or formalities of legal proceedings. Ordinarily, be aid not decide causes as a judge, but prepared the grounds of decision for the judge and sent to, him the questions to be decided between the parties. The judge was always chosen by the parties, either directly, or by rejecting, under certain rules and limitations, the persons proposes to them by the praetor. Hence the saying of Cicero, (pro Cluentis, 43,) that no one could be judged except by a judge of his own choice. There were several kinds of officers called proctors. See Vicat, Vocab.
     2. Before entering on his functions he published an edict announcing the system adopted by him for the application and interpretation of the laws during his magistracy. His authority extended over all jurisdictions, and was summarily expressed by the word do, dico, addico, i, e. do I give the action, dico I declare the law, I promulgate the edict, addico I invest the judge with the right of judging. There were certain cases which he was bound to decide himself, assisted by a council chosen by himself perhaps the Decemvirs. But the greater part of causes brought before him, be sent either to a judge, an arbitrator, or to recuperators, (recuperatores,) or to the centumvirs, as before stated. Under the empire the powers of the praetor passed by degrees to the praefect of the praetorium, or the praefect of the city; so that this magistrate, who at first ranked with the consuls, at last dwindled into a director or manager of the public spectacles or games.
     3. Till lately, there were officers in certain cities of Germany denominated praetors Vide 1 Kent, Com. 528.

References in periodicals archive ?
The element of autonomy was not formalised in the time of the Republic, but was conceded by the State to the responsa of the jurists, and to the edicts of the praetors.
In about 366 BCE, the praetor became the Chief Justice of Roman citizens.
Another historian, Livy, records that in 170 BC, after the praetor Lucius Hortensius had launched an unprovoked assault on the city of Abdera, beheaded its leaders, and sold the remaining inhabitants into slavery, "The Senate regarded this as a disgraceful proceeding and they made the same decree in the case of the Abderites that they had made the previous year in the case of the Coronaeans," namely "that the Senate considered the attack upon Abdera as utterly unjustifiable, and demanded that search should be made for all who were enslaved in order that they might be set free.
Who had higher rank, the praetor or the officials protecting plebeian rights?
The presence of putabam marks the faultiness of the protagonist's understanding, and the narrator explicitly calls Habinnas a comissator rather than praetor.
Because of this, an edict of a praetor, in which he orders or prohibits, is often called jurisdiction (Digest, Iudicium.
The Romulan government is thrown into disarray when a new Praetor called Shinzon (Hardy) stages a daring coup.
The story this time around begins with political upheaval in Romulus where a coup d'etat staged by a new praetor (or president) called Shinzon (Tom Hardy) leads to a call for peace talks with the Federation.
Meeting Praetor Shinzon (Tom Hardy), a half-Reman cloned from Captain Picard himself, they soon discover that Shinzon and his Romulan friends aren't the peace-loving peoples they claim to be.
a leading e-mail security and management software provider, today announced the release of Praetor 1.
Further animal movements were also recorded at this time, with the large rat, Rattus praetor, occurring at Panakiwuk and the thylogale, Thylogale brunii, appearing at Balof 2.
I doubt there are any high-school students, and very few college students, who are aware of the profession, let alone who aspire to be involved," says Stephanie Craft, marketing coordinator for Eckhoff, Watson and Praetor Engineers and founding member of SMPS of Utah.