Praetor

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Related to praetorship: Urban praetor, Praetor Peregrinus

PRAETOR, Roman civil law. A municipal officer of Rome, so called because, (praeiret populo,) he went before or took precedence of the people. The consuls were at first called praetors. Liv. Hist. III. 55. He was a sort of minister of justice, invested with certain legislative powers, especially in regard to the forms or formalities of legal proceedings. Ordinarily, be aid not decide causes as a judge, but prepared the grounds of decision for the judge and sent to, him the questions to be decided between the parties. The judge was always chosen by the parties, either directly, or by rejecting, under certain rules and limitations, the persons proposes to them by the praetor. Hence the saying of Cicero, (pro Cluentis, 43,) that no one could be judged except by a judge of his own choice. There were several kinds of officers called proctors. See Vicat, Vocab.
     2. Before entering on his functions he published an edict announcing the system adopted by him for the application and interpretation of the laws during his magistracy. His authority extended over all jurisdictions, and was summarily expressed by the word do, dico, addico, i, e. do I give the action, dico I declare the law, I promulgate the edict, addico I invest the judge with the right of judging. There were certain cases which he was bound to decide himself, assisted by a council chosen by himself perhaps the Decemvirs. But the greater part of causes brought before him, be sent either to a judge, an arbitrator, or to recuperators, (recuperatores,) or to the centumvirs, as before stated. Under the empire the powers of the praetor passed by degrees to the praefect of the praetorium, or the praefect of the city; so that this magistrate, who at first ranked with the consuls, at last dwindled into a director or manager of the public spectacles or games.
     3. Till lately, there were officers in certain cities of Germany denominated praetors Vide 1 Kent, Com. 528.

A Law Dictionary, Adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States. By John Bouvier. Published 1856.
References in periodicals archive ?
Note also that in 214, during the crisis of the Hannibalic War, the Senate ordered the urban praetorship to go to Q.
After his praetorship taking by lot the province of Far Spain it is said that he cleared the place of bands of robbers the province being untamed in its savagery and in its customs ...
We may begin by setting out the evidence for the praetorship of Favonius.
(10) At a later date, politicians incurred considerable debt in pursuing a public career, but usually only in the quest for the higher offices: praetorship and consulship.
115--a decade or so between moneyership and praetorship is reasonably typical in this period.(21) Moreover, it would also make him a close contemporary with Cn.
(4) The nine-year interval between Macerio's tribunate of the plebs in 131 and a praetorship in 1122 is somewhat longer than the average, which is five or six years, but not problematic: cf., e.g.
If that indeed is the meaning of the phrase in the Argive inscription, the only Fabius Maximus available for service in Greece at that time would be Servilianus, the consul of 142, serving as proconsul after his praetorship ca.
We do not know the date or nature of his praetorship which is usually placed before 141 B.C.(40) The play would have underscored Callaecus' rank, in the context of a vivid rendition of the founding of the Republic, while at the same time reaffirming the validity of the system and of his ancestor as the 'second founder' of Rome.(41) A connection between the res publica, the kind of men who founded it, and the kind of men who were its heirs, as exemplified by the patron himself, was essential to the creation of a drama that was both 'popular' and 'patriotic'.(42)
As the praetorship is not explicitly mentioned in the sources, its terminus non post quem is fixed by the consular candidacy.
Cassius owed their praetorships to Caesar, while Caesar had named D.