They evidently also reject the idea of real natures or essences, for their "pragmatist approach to kind concepts" is coordinate with, and no less pragmatistic
than, their "pragmatist approach to laws" (2007, 155, 165).
There is Richard Hocks's Henry James and Pragmatistic
Thought (Chapel Hill, 1974 Stephen Donadio's Nietzsche, Henry James and the Artistic Will (New York, 1978), John Carlos Rowe's The Theoretical Dimension of Henry James (London, 1985), Paul Armstrong's The Phenomenology of Henry James (Chapel Hill, 1983), and The Challenge of Bewilderment: Understanding and Representation in James, Conrad and Ford (Ithaca, NY, 1987), and one should not forget Quentin Anderson's The American Henry James (New Brunswick, 1957).
Noting acidly that "evolutionary theory in itself is insufficient to generate ethical theory," William went on to insist, in typical pragmatistic
fashion, that "subjectivity and personal bias are unavoidable factors" (Martin 67)--an observation that undermines the entire nexus of assumptions that authorize Winterbourne's, and science's, claims of an authoritative perspective from which the "truth" of others may be known.