In this decision, in December 1869, the court proclaimed that preemptors
obtained land rights only when they had registered their title and paid the government for the property.
In Field's view the act of settlement merely gave the preemptor a preference over others to purchase the land when and if the government decided to offer it for sale.
Thus, the most important question in The Yosemite Valley Case involved the rights of preemptors who had settled on a parcel of land, cultivated it, and improved it, but not yet paid for it.
Preemptors, and even homesteaders, commonly found themselves in this position, facing a period of time during which they had committed to settlement, improved the land, but not yet satisfied all of the conditions necessary to finalize their claims.
Since collaborating with all potential preemptors
is impracticable, each firm would have to choose its research partners carefully.
Each president should thus now become his own preemptor.
Second, how sturdy a support can this ideal preemptor gain from his pure qualities of "reason, talent, ideas and character"?
To be sure, pretty much by definition, preemptors stand, in a sense, outside the cyclic pattern.
According to Michael Noonan of the Foreign Policy Research Institute, units like TF121 could become "the true first responders or preemptors
in the war on terrorism.
Curiously, both theaters in that war had begun in historical-benchmark "preemptive" attacks that--proving the attacking nation's miscalculation of the enemy's will to resist--resulted in all-out wars and the defeat of the preemptors
For the articulators and preemptors
it does not matter whether they are serving their first or second term--they will have only a marginal ability to set the long-term agenda in any significant way.