Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a cytokine induced in the heart after ischemia or pressure overload
Enhancing cGMP/PKG signaling by inhibiting PDE5 seems to be able to attenuate and reverse cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload
 and blunt acute and chronic [beta]-adrenergic stimulation and also protect against ischaemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial apoptosis induced by antitumoral agents [135-137].
With abdominal aortic constriction, the heart is challenged with an immediate pressure overload
and myocardial hypertrophy develops within days.
Further, mice lacking PDGFR-beta in heart muscle cells developed more severe heart failure when exposed to pressure overload
than did normal mice.
RV pressure overload
can result from any condition that impedes the passage of blood flow between the RV and the LV.
Thus, it cannot be excluded that, apart from hemodynamic and pressure overload
, some endocrine factors may also be implicated in physiological heart hypertrophy.
BNP is secreted primarily from the left ventricle in response to pressure overload
and regulates blood pressure, electrolyte balance and fluid volume.
For many lesser men the combination of sleep deprivation, the unpredictability of his profession and the expectation of supporters renowned for their wild optimism would equal pressure overload
Preeclampsia, which complicates 5% of pregnancies and causes considerable maternal and neonatal morbidity, is characterized by markedly increased peripheral vascular resistance, which leads to increasing blood pressure, in turn causing pressure overload
in the already volume-overloaded hemodynamic state of pregnancy.
In recent years an increase in the number of failures of hydraulic components caused by pressure overload
have been reported.
In contrast, much less known aspect of pressure overload
of RV is its impact on electrocardiographic (ECG) changes.
Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that the effect of EGCG against cardiac fibrosis may be attributed to its inhibition on NF-KB activation and subsequent CTGF overexpression, suggesting the therapeutic potential of EGCG on the prevention of cardiac remodeling in patients with pressure overload