Landgrave Carl von Hessen-Kassel, who had Bergpark WilhelmshE[micro]he planned in 1689, was a typical ruler of such a small princedom
Ma'ab, and Udumu), as well as some princedoms
in Cyprus (Jadnana) remained Assyrian vassals.
The Battle of Hastings was fought for the crown of England, but William the Conqueror subsequently allowed his Marcher lords to take on divided Cymric princedoms
in smaller wars.
Whereas Oriental empires became centralized, bureaucratized, and heavily taxed, Europe's princedoms
were constantly competing with each other.
At several points in time the territory corresponding to modern-day Nagorno-Karabakh has been a constituent province of Armenian kingdoms and princedoms
and it continued to maintain a quasi-independent existence even in times when most of Armenia came under foreign domination.
Although Europe is a classical word, its use as a political entity meant to reflect a collective political consciousness of the myriad princedoms
and monarchies became possible due to the common fear of the Muslims, mainly the Ottomans, who posed a direct threat.