Another area of potential contention is provability
. Is there evidence that shows a player lost value in the draft because of the injury or are there other intervening causes?
For only then, he could have managed to provide a new answer to the question "how does humanity itself fit into the cosmos?" Finally, only if we try to replace the purpose-oriented teleological methods of questioning (seeking truth, certainty, provability
of God or destination), with not-yet-metaphysical, non-teleological and rather cosmological understanding, will we be able to provide satisfactory answers to this question, which would be acceptable both on rationalist-metaphysical and on empiricist-naturalist grounds by disregarding their alleged independence.
Also, neither Corcoran nor Smith is discussing provability
: both are discussing deducibility of conclusions from premises.
But my sense is that our industry's reflexive responses to negative findings are coming less from a place of concern for scientific integrity and more from a deeply held insecurity about A) the true efficacy of our products, B) the scientific provability
of this efficacy and C) the economic impact that a negative trial may have on a given product category.
The second part is more technical and gives dense proofs of proposals related to provability
and the famous Godel theorem.
Watson, "On the Anthropic Principle in the Multiverse: Addressing Provability
and Tautology" (March 30, 2011): arXiv: 1103.6044.
: (y, [pi]) = (Eval(SK, x), Prove(SK, x)) and Verify (PK, x, y, [pi]);
The prosecutor is required to review the evidence to make a decision concerning both the provability
and the type of homicide that has been committed.
He comments in the preface of his The Logic of Provability
(1993) that the crucial formal result that motivated his entire book was contained in an article published in Russian that was sent to him, and which he spent a week deciphering with a dictionary.
Thus, the defendant's subjective beliefs about the risks were as important and informative as the attorney's estimates of provability
in so far as postverdict evaluation of the right to counsel was concerned.
versus probability--Reactions of colleagues have convinced me that elaboration of this assertion, even in multiple ways, is necessary.
This relative aspect of logical necessity was noticed by authors that meant it to be equal to provability
, like Carnap (1956) or Bealer (2006).