Hanks (2015a) links learner puzzling to a Freirean pedagogy with its sense of empowerment.
Her learners explored their own puzzles over five months and Chu found they welcomed how puzzling allowed them to exercise decision-making power in their learning (Chu, 2007).
Learners reported that puzzling promoted classroom collaboration and boosted confidence in language use (Dawson, 2017).
Taken collectively, the studies by Chu (2007), Hanks (2015a, 2017b) and Dawson (2017) offer grounds for optimism for practitioners looking to scaffold learner puzzling in other localised contexts.
As Dawson (2017) notes, there is no single method of implementing learner puzzling. However, the studies described above all moved systematically from learners first identifying puzzles, then reflecting and reformulating whilst concurrently exploring as they strove towards understanding.
It remains to be seen how learner puzzling would fare in a syllabus with less space for the extended project work that Hanks (2017b) and Dawson (2017) organised.
Some learner-researchers in Dawson's (2017) account noted that learner puzzling was sometimes seen as an unwelcome distraction from their main aim, namely, exam practice.
The focus of the learner-researchers often coalesced around problem-solving rather than prioritising understanding of their language learning experiences and represented a move away from the intended aim of puzzling. Dawson (2017) related how her learners found it a challenge to move away from a solution-based mind-set.
challenge for implementing EP, then, is to successfully convey the importance of puzzling, and to give enough time for a question framed as a "problem" to transmute into genuine puzzled curiosity.
To summarise, there is a broad acknowledgement in the existing literature on learner puzzling that it is far from straightforward to introduce and implement in the language classroom.
Facilitation of learner puzzling presented a further opportunity to gauge the extent to which this conception of learners was grounded in reality.