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Over time, phylogeographic inference suggested that H7N9 had become established in separate parts of China during the second and third waves, reassorting with local avian influenza viruses (9,10).
It is a disease that can circulate within and beyond dense populations of wild and domestic birds, drifting, mutating, and reassorting as it does so.
The third, most frightening, scenario is that H1N1 could pick up genes by reassorting with other flu viruses, making it both more lethal as well as highly contagious.
With massive concentrations of farm animals within which to mutate, these new swine flu viruses in North America seem to be on an evolutionary fast track, jumping and reassorting between species at an unprecedented rate," explained Michael Greger, director of public health at the US Humane Society.
Let's say you're a fortune teller who specializes in divining your clients' supposedly "ideal" occupations by reassorting the letters in their names, and that one day the 12-year-old Ross walks into your tent, plunks down his buffalo nickel, and spells out his name for you.
In addition to random mutation, flu viruses also undergo change by shuffling or reassorting these gene segments among different strains.
This technology involves removal of several of the amino acids found at the hemagglutinin cleavage site, growing plasmids that code for the modified components, and then reassorting them into a nonpathogenic strain, Dr.
The mammalian genome is constantly reassorting itself and recombining during reproduction.
Although aggregation to patches of locally high prey density has been suggested as a possible stabilizing mechanism (Hassell and May 1973), it is more likely to be destabilizing in a continuously reassorting system such as the Daphnia-alga interaction (Murdoch and Stewart-Oaten 1989, Murdoch et al.
The reassorting included a bigger push into apparel and an expansion of its private-label lines.
Whereas human-like H3s have been circulating, reassorting, and becoming more prevalent in the commercial swine population since 2012, introduction and expansion of the human-like H3 reassortant influenza A viruses in exhibition swine facilitated documented zoonoses from this genotype.