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This viral diversity was produced by 3 evolutionary processes: human-to-swine transmission, long-distance movements of swine, and genomic reassortment. We identified 15 genotypes, including 13 reassortant genotypes with segments from multiple IAV lineages (Figure 3).
The enzootic circulation of virus lineages of H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes in swine varies by continent and since 2009, includes reassortments with the pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) (VINCENT et al., 2014).
Some of the viruses from these zoonotic transmission events can become established in the new host populations by acquiring de novo mutations and/or gene reassortments. The H1N1 pandemic of 2009 is a good example in which the pandemic virus was a result of multiple reassortments between avian, human, and swine influenza viruses in pigs (2).
Saif et al., "Reassortment among bovine, porcine and human rotavirus strains results in G8P[7] and G6P[7] strains isolated from cattle in South Korea," Veterinary Microbiology, vol.
Two swine origin influenza A (H3N2) virus strains that triggered febrile respiratory illness in two children this summer contain genetic material from the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus--a genetic reassortment that hasn't been seen before, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
This process is called reassortment, and this computer-based networking model is a novel way to see how it all happened in influenza over time; the researchers analyzed the relationship among the genomes of more than 5,000 strains of influenza A that had been isolated over several decades and recently sequenced.
Liu and his colleagues, who published their findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, warned in their paper: 'The possibility of novel pandemic strains being generated from reassortment between avian H9N2 and H1N1/2009 influenza viruses exists.' Flu viruses have eight gene segments and one of the segments is called the PA gene.
The investigators noted that resistance-conferring mutations in an influenza A virus can occur as a result of drug selection, spontaneous mutation, or genetic reassortment with another drug-resistant influenza A virus (J.
First described in April 2009, the virus appeared to be a new strain of H1N1 which resulted when a previous triple reassortment of bird, pig and human flu viruses further combined with a Eurasian pig flu virus.
But, he added, some of those limitations are based on "unfounded fears of the risk of reassortment."
As Time magazine described it, Pigs make particularly good biological mixing bowls since they can be infected by bird-, swine- and human-flu viruses and provide a hospitable environment for the viruses to swap genes and create entirely new strains in a process called reassortment."
Influenzas are notorious for playing fast and loose with their genomes--mutations are introduced as the virus replicates and gene segments are swapped with other viruses in a process called reassortment. Reassortment is responsible for the repackaging errors that, in part, created the H1N1 pandemic influenza.