For example, reciprocators
have been studied along with expected utility maximizers in the context of trust games (see Fehr, Kirchsteiger, and Riedl 1993; Berg, Dickhaut, and McCabe 1995; McCabe, Rassenti, and Smith 1996, among others), ultimatum games (see Camerer and Thaler 1995; Giith, Schmittberger, and Swarze 1982; Roth 1995, among others), and prisoners' dilemma games and public goods games (see Clark and Sefton 2001; Fehr and Gachter 2000; Fischbacher, Gachter, and Fehr 2001, among others).
Collateral tax sanctions thus can provide reciprocator
taxpayers with specific examples of the government's tax enforcement successes, whereas the use of monetary tax penalties results in anonymous and therefore much less memorable tax-enforcement statistics.
They find evidence of altruists, reciprocators
, and other types in their subject population.
They find that human subjects fall into three types: reciprocators
, cooperators and free-riders.
behave like moral and emotional reciprocators
rather than mere wealth
The reciprocity theory, in contrast, sees individuals as moral and emotional reciprocators
367, 368-69 (2002) (arguing that, as moral and emotional reciprocators
, people conform their actions and attitudes to reflect what they believe to be the behavior of others around them).
3) Algo similar sucede con la clasificacion de las sociedades llamadas "transigualitarias" que propone Hayden (1995: 3-86), en la que las sociedades de jefatura aparecen como el ultimo eslabon de una cadena de desigualdad creciente en la que se podrian distinguir distintos tipos de liderazgo (despots, reciprocators
These built-in impulses include generosity; gratitude, with concomitant sense of obligation; empathy for and trust in reliable reciprocators
, also known as friends.
26) Whether reciprocity is advantageous to individuals depends sensitively on the proportion of other individuals who use reciprocity and on an individual's capacity to judge the likely frequency of reciprocators
in any particular situation and over time.
This game still shares with the standard Prisoner's Dilemma game the idea that there can be both reciprocators
then eliminate exploiters and "generous" tit-fot-tat takes over.