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Related to recombinant DNA: recombinant DNA technology

DNA

n. scientifically, deoxyribonucleic acid, a chromonal double chain (the famous "double helix") in the nucleus of each living cell the combination of which determines each individual's hereditary characteristics. In law, the importance is the discovery that each person's DNA is different and is found in each living cell, so a hair, blood, skin or any part of the body can be used to identify and distinguish an individual from all other people. DNA testing can result in proof of one's involvement or lack of involvement in a crime scene. While recent DNA tests have proved a convicted killer on death row did not commit a crime and resulted in his release, current debate concerns whether DNA evidence is scientifically certain enough to be admitted in trials. The trend is strongly in favor of admission.

dna

noun authentication, certification, confirmation of identity, proof of identity, scientific evidence, scientific means of designation, scientific means of identity, scientific means to distinguish a person, scientific method to reveal identity, substantiation, validation of identity, verification of identity, deoxyribonucleic acid
Associated concepts: appeal of a case, DNA fingerprint, DNA polymerase, forensics, overturning a case, reversal of a case

DNA

abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical which is found in virtually every cell in the body and which carries genetic information. Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. DNA profiling doesn't allow the examination of every single difference between people's DNA so the concentration will be on those aspects which are most likely to yield a difference. DNA can be extracted from any cells that contain a structure called the nucleus, for example, blood, semen, saliva or hair.

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from a person's mother. Brothers and sisters have the same mitochondrial DNA type as their mother. This feature of mitochondrial DNA can be used for body identification. The γ-chromosome is present only in men and is largely unchanged as it passes through the male line of a family. The usefulness of the technique in criminal matters is vastly enhanced by the extent to which it is possible to compare a sample with other individuals. To this end there is a National DNA Database maintained by the ASSOCIATION OF CHIEF POLICE OFFICERS and managed by the FORENSIC SCIENCE SERVICE. Techniques vary. There is a UK offence of DNA theft. It is also of assistance in paternity matters.

References in periodicals archive ?
We have been informed that the RAC is to be replaced by ad hoc gene therapy policy conferences and a smaller ORDA [Office of Recombinant DNA Activities] advisory group.
Recombinant cell A cell containing recombinant DNA.
Ideally, the efficiencies of recombinant DNA technology will diminish the need for such pricing.
Clinical trials involving recombinant DNA products intended to be conducted in the U.
Cartridges 100 IU / ml and 3 ml x 5 - obtained by recombinant DNA technology in Saccharomyces cerevisi; onset of action occurs within 1 h 30 min, the maximum effect occurs during 4-12 ha of the total duration of action is 24 hours.
They are concerned that the recombinant DNA, if present, may have triggered some of the autoimmune-based inflammatory disorders and malignant tumors observed among children/young women after receiving Gardasil[TM] vaccinations.
When the recombinant DNA molecule is administered in vivo, a protective immune response is induced, thereby enhancing protection of the individual against subsequent infection by western equine encephalitis virus.
Two of 13 gene therapy protocols approved by the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee target HIV infection.
With a particular focus on the subject taken from a pharmaceutical perspective, the book offers a broad introduction to protein science and recombinant DNA technology - key areas that underpin the whole subject.
Antony, France) has patented a recombinant DNA vector characterized in that it is capable of directing the expression an/or transcription of a selected nucleotide sequence in the cells of the central nervous system and in that it comprises (i) at least part of the genome of an adenovirus, including the regions required for that adenovirus to penetrate into the cells normally infectable by that adenovirus and (ii) being inserted into said part of genome of an adenovirus under the control of a promoter, either present or also inserted into said genome part and operative in said cells.
Wilson and his colleagues received approval last year from the National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) to administer liver cells containing added LDL receptor genes to three patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (SN: 10/12/91, p.
Significant advances in recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering have improved ways of introducing new genes into cells.

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