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Examples include complete 3rd nerve palsy accompanied by contralateral limb ataxia and tremor from involvement of the red nucleus (Claude syndrome) or by contralateral hemiparesis from involvement of descending motor (eg cortico-spinal) axons in the cerebral peduncle (Weber syndrome) or in combination with both types of motor disorder affecting the opposite limb(s) (Benedict syndrome).
The red nucleus and the ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus are connected via the central tegmental tract, and the dentate nucleus connects to the contralateral red nucleus through the superior cerebellar peduncle.
1-3) The efferent pathway of these cold-sensitive preoptic neurons traverses the median forebrain bundle to terminate in the posterior hypothalamus, where axons proceed caudally through the mid-brain dorsolateral to the red nucleus to reach reticulospinal neurons located within the reticular formation of both the pons and medulla.