(45) Slate pencils and inkbottles excavated reflect daily religious instruction, catechism, writing, reading and arithmetic, which were all commonly timetabled in Catholic reformatories
. (46) The excavated ceramic material (a total of 395 artefacts) contained a high proportion of teacups (17).
(5.) For examples of this type of analysis in colonial and former colonial contexts, see the comments by Clement and Hess (1990, 13), when summarizing the conclusions of two essays on the development of juvenile delinquency in modern non-Western contexts (Egypt and Russia): "The juvenile reformatory spread with the influence of Western European countries: Badr-El-Din All demonstrates that Egypt established reformatories
a year after becoming a colony of Britain in 1882, and Yoshio Tsujimoto shows that Japan, anxious to gain the respect of western nations also copied the British reformatory system in the 1880s."
Davis's study of New York's 1910 incarceration rates reported that women represented 12% of those sentenced to state prisons, reformatories
, county jails, and workhouses, (37) and Bryant's Philadelphia study reported that women accounted for 20% of the city's prisoners in 1915.
But lawyers and opposition legislators have expressed concern that getting rid of the age requirement could lead to sending underage children to reformatories
when they might need rehabilitation through other welfare or educational measures instead.
(86) In a classic example of Foucauldian discipline, some reforming inspectors also set up district schools in England, where boys were subject to marching and drilling, and every minute of their day was ruled by the bell; industrial schools, ragged schools and reformatories
in Ireland sometimes followed this model.
Borstals were operated by the State (as distinct from reformatories
, many of which were operated by charitable bodies) and situated in the country, so as to be able to engage in agricultural and reclamation works.
Rafter argues that reformatories
were intended to serve two primary functions: sexual and vocational regulation of young, working-class women.
For example, in New York state in the 1890s, any woman who went to one of the state reformatories
could be held for up to five years.
By the 1920s, almost every state and the federal government had established a separate adult women's reformatory.(4) The majority of inmates came from working-class backgrounds and were often daughters of immigrants; only a small minority were African American.(5) Most of the reformatory inmates had been sentenced for "crimes against public order," including drunkenness, vagrancy, and a variety of prostitution-related offenses once labeled "crimes against chastity." Many of the educated and professional women who worked in the reformatories
sought to "uplift" the sexual morality of female inmates.
, hostels, maternity homes, and battered women's shelters all reflect the historical tendency to institutionalize women in order to solve their problems.
Lakhsha confirmed the Ministry's keenness to boost the work with all international organizations, including Save the Children, so as to consolidate the concepts of human rights and provide the health and social care for women and children within the central reformatories
That essay addressed the author's serious grievances against the educational practices of German reformatories
. It did so before the onset of the crisis of correctional education, which was diagnosed soon afterward by specialists and the general public as resulting from increasing educational, economic, and conceptual problems in modern German youth welfare.