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The triad of psychosocial, biomedical and pharmacological causes of refractoriness of diabetes can be further expanded into a 7D framework, which lists 7 possible etiologies or contributory factors of uncontrolled hyperglycaemia as outlined in Table 1.
Refractoriness of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release determines Ca2+ alternans in atrial myocytes.
Thus, the active thyroid function is essential for this process, leading to the occurrence of refractoriness under long days.
A strange variable of special relevance was the psychopharmacological treatment, although we assumed the refractoriness of negative symptoms to antipsychotic medication (Leuch et al., 2009).
These would be expected to prolong atrial effective refractory periods and induce post-repolarization refractoriness. The consequence would be a reduction in the critical interval for reexcitation given by APD-ERP [21], reflecting a lower likelihood of reentry [3,22].
Kaolin is an important raw material employed in ceramic manufacture; some kaolinite clay types have been used to prepare ceramics based on mullite because it has high-stability temperature, high refractoriness, high resistance to corrosive agents, and other desirable properties [7, 8].
[alpha]-[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] is used as an advanced ceramic given its high chemical stability, hardness, high refractoriness, high thermal conductivity, good wear resistance, and electrical insulation [3].
The NB refractoriness in response to these genotoxic agents, in terms of induction of activating ligands, suggests that these drugs do not function as immune adjuvants and, thus, could not support the NK cell-mediated recognition and lysis of tumor cells.
Unfortunately, about 15% to 30% of patients with HL experience either primary refractoriness or relapse despite modern treatment options [3].
Ganglionated plexi modulate extrinsic cardiac autonomic nerve input effects on sinus rate, atrioventricular conduction, refractoriness, and inducibility of atrial fibrillation.
Transmission of cell-associated cytomegalovirus, immunisation by transfused leucocytes resulting in HLA antibodies and refractoriness to platelet transfusion, post-transfusion thrombocytopenia, immunomodulation and potentially other adverse effects.
TEA also increases the repolarisation refractoriness of the myocardium thus preventing arrhythmia, maintains the myocardial demand/supply ratio and coronary perfusion pressure in the ischaemic myocardium, thus optimising the myocardial oxygen delivery and decreasing the cardiac work and benefitting the cardiovascular status [6,7,9,8] by its positive effects on respiratory system [9,8,10] and minimal change in ventilatory mechanics even in chronic obstructive respiratory disease and prevents perioperative adverse events.