'We believe Libervant can be a major contribution to patient care for refractory epilepsy
patients seeking a better alternative to existing therapies for the management of breakthrough seizures,' said Keith J.
However, 7% of patients needed three or more AEDs to control seizures, and only one patient was referred to have a pre-surgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy
. This finding is in agreement with the literature that epilepsy in older people generally responds well to treatment and drug-resistant epilepsy is uncommon. The prevalence rate of SE in our study was 6.8% including five convulsive and two nonconvulsive cases of SE.
KDs are shown to be more effective than any new antiepileptic drugs in treating patients with refractory epilepsy
. A meta-analysis showed the MAD and LGIT resulted in less ketosis but their efficacies were similiar to that of classic KD (10).
Valencia, "Efficacy of lacosamide as adjunctive therapy in children with refractory epilepsy
," Journal of Child Neurology, vol.
Vagal nerve stimulation for refractory epilepsy
in children: indications and experience at The Hospital for Sick Children.
Early identification of refractory epilepsy
. N Engl J Med.
Subependymal nodular heterotopia is a cortical development malformation that is commonly associated with refractory epilepsy
. Patients with heterotopia show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from being asymptomatic to presenting with intractable seizures and intellectual impairment.
When patients with known refractory epilepsy
present to the emergency department with impaired consciousness with typical manifestations of NCSE, such as dull gaze and lack of response to verbal stimuli, they can be treated with midazolam, which is one of the fast-acting benzodiazepines without the need for EEG.
 Thus, new drugs with minimal side effects and effective in refractory epilepsy