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Self-control training was then introduced to increase the time waited for reinforcer gratification.
Based on data from reinforcer assessments, the items identified as preferred served as reinforcers.
At 7.5 seconds, an electronically generated sound cue imbedded into the audio track signified the presentation of the reinforcer (i.e., lizard or invertebrate) either to the left or the right of the subject.
(2006) state that there are three different functions of observational learning, including 1) the emission of previously acquired operants, 2) the acquisition of new operants through observation, and 3) the acquisition of conditioned reinforcers through observation.
Finally, we thinned the schedule on which the auditory conditioned reinforcer was delivered to the point that it was eventually unnecessary.
Yet, the rats had to approach the water tray to obtain the presented reinforcer and hence, some discriminative function of stimuli correlated with the reinforcer delivery cannot be excluded.
As a general rule, the more the person wants the reinforcer, the smaller the reinforcement you can get away with.
An experiment performed by Bowman, Piazza, Fisher, Hagopian, and Kogan (1997) with 7 children who had been diagnosed with moderate to profound mental retardation, shows that preference for varied (versus constant) reinforcers could be established even when the quality of the varied reinforcers is lower than the constant reinforcer (although 2 participants preferred the constant, higher quality reinforcer, and one showed no systematic preference for either option).
If we consider that greater discriminative control is observed when the antecedent stimulus is a reliable predictor of the reinforcer (e.g., Blough, 1975), then the discriminative control exerted by a response on the next one may be more promptly developed in sequences with high and intermediate probability, resulting in quicker learning of these sequences.