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For example, her dependence on David Levering Lewis's When Harlem Was in Vogue (1981) and Nathan Huggins's Harlem Renaissance (1971), both unquestionably crucial works in their time, cause her to discount the impact of radical political thought on the New Negro Renaissance.
Regarding the origin of the Renaissance in Spain, Maravall identified three fundamental components: the empire, which until the sixteenth century was alien to the Spanish tradition;(6) the influence of Italian humanism, beginning in the early years of the fifteenth century; and a number of innovations (novedades) brought about by a series of changes within the autochthonous culture of Castilian society.
To stress his point that medieval elements in Renaissance Spain were of no real consequence, Maravall further argued that the various kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula had always been "less medieval" than those of other regions of Europe.
One of these was his attributing the early development of the Renaissance in Spain to the long cultural relationship fostered by the commercial and political interactions between the two regions - a dubious claim since Italy also had strong ties with other regions of Europe.
The reason that no other historian had ever taken into consideration such an early date for the initial development of Renaissance humanism in Spain was due to an unusual displacement of attention in modern Spanish historiography.
His uncertainty about whether the fifteenth century represented the beginning of the Renaissance is best illustrated by his efforts to reevaluate the works of the humanists (he is still unaware of the newly coined term "humanism") while at the same time refusing to recognize their role as promoters of the new era.
And because he did not accept any continuity between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance of the sixteenth century, he had to place the culture of the fifteenth century within the medieval period.
In this study the term "humanism" was utilized, to my knowledge, for the first time in Spanish Renaissance studies.
To Menendez y Pelayo, who saw the Renaissance as an historically identifiable phenomenon, the term itself was a misnomer, because classical civilization had never completely disappeared, especially in countries like Spain and Italy.
Before delving deeper into Panofsky's bolstering of a growing Italian Renaissance ideology in the United States, it is important to remember his other attachments to the art of the North and the High Gothic.
But the distinction Panofsky tried to establish was perhaps too subtle: "The great man of the Renaissance asserted his personality centripetally, so to speak: he swallowed up the world that surrounded him until his whole environment had been absorbed by his own self.
But if Panofsky's Abbot Suger is arguably too close to Renaissance to be truly emblematic of the Gothic, Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism remains an unambiguous celebration of an era.