There are three theories regarding how improvement in daytime gas exchange occurs: (a) tired respiratory muscles are rested and restored; (b) there is improvement of lung compliance; and (c) there is reversal of the diminished respiratory center
's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, thought to cause gradual hypoventilation (Hill, 1993).
Caffeine dilates the bronchial tubes (Liska, 1986) and increases respiration levels (Liska, 1986; Ray & Ksir, 1990) by stimulating the medulla respiratory center
(Victor, Lubetsky, & Greden, 1981).
This is caused by diseases affecting the respiratory center
. This is also treated by both medicants, with caffiene being superior to theophylline for this ailment.
Conclusion: The decreased FRC and increased oxygen demand does not affect the arterial oxygen saturation in pregnant women as progesterone mainly lowers the threshold of respiratory center
and increases their sensitivity to carbon dioxide.
Respiratory control centers Function Cerebral hemisphere Regulates respiratory center
located in pons and medulla Midbrain Rate of inspiration Pons Pneumotaxic center Intensity of respiration Apneustic center Rate of inspiration Medulla oblongata Ventral breathing center Responsible for expiratory movement Dorsal breathing center Respiratory control centers Abnormal breathing pattern associated with injury Cerebral hemisphere Cheyne stokes breathing pattern Midbrain Hyperventilation Pons Pneumotaxic center Cluster breathing pattern Apneustic center Apneustic breathing pattern Medulla oblongata Ventral breathing center Ataxic breathing pattern Dorsal breathing center
It was developed at Aeropharm GmbH in Rudolstadt, Germany, Sandoz's global respiratory Center
The site of action of progesterone appears to be central, through a direct stimulatory effect on the respiratory center
, increasing its sensitivity to PC02.Similar increase in Tidal volume and minute ventilation were found by Emilia & others in a study on 52 pregnant women.
The most serious side effect of the opioid antagonists is respiratory depression, which is mediated by decreased sensitivity of the respiratory center
to elevations in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2).
In fact, agonal breathing--a distinctively slow breathing pattern in which the collapsed person appears to be gasping for air--is an extremely common occurrence shortly after the respiratory center
in the brainstem becomes deprived of oxygen-rich blood.
This study is the first to show an association between nighttime coughing and snoring, and to suggest a possible link between those symptoms and sleep disturbances, said James Goodwin, Ph.D., of the University of Arizona Respiratory Center
, who was not involved in the study.
It's difficult to compare the health risks from dust with other types of aerosols, but Joe Mauderly, director of the National Environmental Respiratory Center
in Albuquerque, New Mexico, suggests one approach.
But other clinicians feel that lesions of the respiratory center
do not explain the occurrence of this condition, since all symptoms can be completely reversible with weight loss (Price & Wilson, 1986).