EEG signals were recorded from frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and reticular formation
from inside a totally copper shielded room.
There is somewhat more overlap of the EF system with g-dependent structures than we reported in 1990, as four EF system structures (pontine reticular formation
, median raphe, superior colliculus, ventral tegmental area) are now found to be strongly associated with g factor deficits, rather than the two we reported in 1990 (superior colliculus, median raphe).
The reflex arc(2) for hiccups comprises: (1) the afferent limb: phrenic nerve, vagus nerve, or thoracic sympathetic fibers; (2) the central connection: not a specific center, more an interaction among brain stem respiratory system, phrenic nerve nuclei, reticular formation
, and hypothalamus; and (3) the efferent limb: primarily the phrenic nerve.
Preservation of voluntary eye movements occurs when the lesion remains caudal to the nucleus of the occulomotor nerve; consciousness is preserved when the reticular formation
in the dorsal pons is unaffected by the lesion.
Due to lesion in the MLF, ipsilateral medial rectus fails to receive the signal to contract when paramedian pontine reticular formation
(PPRF) and sixth nerve nucleus act to intiate lateral gaze.
High densities of opioid receptors are located in all areas of the central nervous system known to be involved in integrating information about pain such as cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray matter and reticular formation
(8) and, these major structures of the medial pain system have a very high concentration of opioid receptors (5).
From there they project into the LC and other areas such as the reticular formation
and the raphe nuclei, which play a role in REM sleep.
The brain glucose metabolism increases significantly in the thalamus, the limbic system and the pontine reticular formation
during REM sleep as compared to quiet wakefulness (15).
For this second edition, new chapters have been added on reticular formation
, control of posture and movement, and the patient with neurologic disorder.
In the adult, the motor nucleus of the facial nerve (VIIIth cranial nerve) is located deep in the reticular formation
of the caudal portion of the pons.
Distractibility, an executive function deficit, appears to involve dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems in the reticular formation
, prefrontal cortex, and corpus callosum, and is best treated with methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine, he said.
They do, however, exert an influence over spinal interneurons through the rubrospinal and reticulospinal pathways via the brain stem by means of the red nuclei and reticular formation