Retroactive

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Retroactive

Having reference to things that happened in the past, prior to the occurrence of the act in question.

A retroactive or retrospective law is one that takes away or impairs vested rights acquired under existing laws, creates new obligations, imposes new duties, or attaches a new and different legal effect to transactions or considerations already past. Common-law principles do not favor the retroactive effect of laws in the majority of cases, and canons of legislative construction presume that legislation is not intended as retroactive unless its language expressly makes it retroactive.

Retroactive criminal laws that increase punishment for acts committed prior to their enactments are deemed Ex Post Facto Laws and are unenforceable because they violate Article I, Section 9, Clause 3, and Section 10, Clause 1, of the U.S. Constitution and comparable provisions of state constitutions.

West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

retroactive

adj. referring to a court's decision or a statute enacted by a legislative body, which would result in an application to past transactions and legal actions. In criminal law, statutes which would increase penalties or make criminal activities which had been previously legal are prohibited by the Constitutional ban on ex post facto laws (Article I, Section 9). Most court decisions which change the elements necessary to prove a crime or the introduction of evidence such as confessions are usually made non-retroactive to prevent a flood of petitions of people convicted under prior rules. Nor can statutes or court decisions take away "vested" property rights or change contract rights. However, some decisions are so fundamental to justice they may have a retroactive effect, depending on the balance on stability of the law balanced against the public good. Retroactive is also called "retrospective." (See: ex post facto)

Copyright © 1981-2005 by Gerald N. Hill and Kathleen T. Hill. All Right reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Toutefois, cette confiance est diminuee par de mauvais resultats scolaires et une sensibilite aux retroactions des enseignantes.
Ces mecanismes de retroactions positives se retrouvent empiriquement dans le cas francais.
* fournir a l'apprenant des retroactions appropriees en ce qui trait a sa performance de transfert;
La retroaction est finalement assuree par le mesurage du bonhomme a l'aide de l'unite de mesure appropriee.
Les enseignantes ont d'abord ete observees, et les examinateurs ont ensuite commente leurs observations en fournissant des retroactions sur la qualite des interactions en classe.
Parfois, j'ai l'impression que les gens etaient amorphes et en lisant les retroactions, ils vont expliquer pourquoi ils se sentaient comme ca et parfois, ce n'est pas du tout lie a ma personne.
Tel que decrit par Lee et Solmon (2005), tout au long des cours d'EPS, l'eleve prend des decisions: deployer ou non un effort devant une tache difficile, etre attentif ou non aux consignes et retroactions donnees par l'enseignant, s'engager ou non dans les activites proposees.
Concretement, la promotion d'interactions peut se manifester lorsque les coequipiers s'entraident, echangent des ressources telles du materiel ou de l'information, se fournissent des retroactions constructives, questionnent le raisonnement et les conclusions des autres, encouragent l'effort pour atteindre les buts du groupe et se font confiance (Gillies, 2004; Johnson & Johnson, 1989).
Une troisieme source est la persuasion par autrui qui peut prendre la forme de retroactions evaluatives, critiques, conseils, encouragements et avis de personnes signifiantes.
Egalement, Kirkpatrick et Locke (1996) proposent que le leader transformationnel construise l'autoefficacite de ses subordonnes en leur donnant des retroactions sur une base reguliere et de facon adequate.