There will be a moderate positive relationship between individual and relational role balance and life satisfaction and well-being.
There will be a moderate negative relationship between individual and relational role balance and endorsement of mental health symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as reported overall psychological distress.
The scale used in this study was developed based on a review of the literature on role balance and development in emerging adulthood and on findings from a small focus group study of emerging adults on the topic of balance (N = 40).
To address this gap in the literature, the work-family balance dichotomy was re-conceptualized for the current scale as role balance between individual and relational roles.
We attempted to account for the effects of the demographic variables in relation to life satisfaction prior to exploring the extent to which multiple role balance and job satisfaction would predict life satisfaction.
After controlling for respondents' age, years of school counseling experience, and location of" school environment, we found that role balance and job satisfaction scores each accounted for significant portions of the variance in women school counselors' satisfaction with life scores, [R.sup.2] change = .38, F (6, 126) change = 14.57, p < .001, [R.sup.2] = .41 (adjusted [R.sup.2] = .38).
In our study investigating the relationships among women school counselors' multiple role balance, job satisfaction, and overall life satisfaction, we found that greater multiple role balance ability was associated with greater satisfaction with life.
Although we found that women school counselors may find that ambiguous professional roles and concomitant role discrepancy in their jobs relate to broader role balance issues across their life roles, professional role ambiguity may be problematic for men school counselors as well.
Viewed collectively, these studies raised the following research questions that guided the development of this study: Are role balance perceptions and adult attachment orientations differentially related to current indicators of well-being among college students?
We hypothesized that Role Balance scores (from the Role Balance Inventory [RBI; Marks & MacDermid, 1996]) would be negatively related to measures of adult attachment insecurity (i.e., the Avoidance and Anxiety subscales of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale [ECR; Brennan et al., 1998]) and that Role Balance and adult attachment orientation scores should demonstrate uniquely significant, although inverse, relationships with students' depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D; Radloff, 1977]) scores.
The RBI contains two eight-item subscales measuring role balance and role overload (or perceptions of role strain), respectively.
To explore whether our participants' gender and race/ethnicity were related to scores on the key constructs under investigation, we conducted two 2 x 4 (Gender x Race/Ethnicity) analyses of variance (ANOVAs) that respectively examined Role Balance and CES-D scores, as well as a separate 2 x 4 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) that examined participants' scores on the two subscales assessing their adult attachment orientations (i.e., Avoidance, Anxiety).