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As Vera Kutzinski remarks, Hayden does more, in poems such as "Runagate Runagate," than to reject the enslavement of humans: "his struggle is also against the linguistic vestiges of slavery manifest in the continued confinement of Afro-Americans by a language that denies not only their complex historico-cultural identities, but their humanity" (1986, 179).
For instance, the slave-owners' ships form a space in which individuals of various nationalities are forced into contact, thus offering a transnational context unavailable in "Runagate Runagate.
This will is one of Hayden's great themes; in "Night, Death, Mississippi," in "Runagate, Runagate," and in "Middle Passage," he demonstrates the degree to which every denial of recognition instigates a renewed expression of the desire for it.
Unlike "Runagate Runagate," which presents a collage of voices, "Peeling off the Skin" presents three different figures that are possessed by the singular voice of Nat Turner.
Langston Hughes and Arna Bontemps (New York: Doubleday, 1949) 168-71; "1949 Runagate Runagate," Negro Digest 15.
Overall, Hayden's sampling of statements from runagates and a slaveowner, lyrics of gospels and spirituals, and the words on a wanted poster reveals that a single poem can effectively transmit the spirits of multiple personas.
Breaking to some extent with the principles outlined in his diver's manifesto, Hayden foregrounds interactive exchange in the composition of "Runagate, Runagate.
It anticipates his later "Negro history" poems, including "Runagate Runagate," "The Ballad of Nat Turner," and "Frederick Douglass.
the well-known story of blues singer Robert Johnson's Faustian bargain with the devil), but the reference to Harriet Tubman as an Esu-like figure (as borrowed from the Wendell Logan composition Runagate Runagate) is particularly intriguing.
19) The itinerant preacher Dan Young recalled complaints that "the people were spending so much time in following after these [Methodist] runagates that they would raise nothing, and would have to be maintained as paupers.
Suttree[,] it is our understanding [that you squandered your] years in the company of thieves, derelicts, miscreants, pariahs, poltroons, spalpeens, curmudgeons, clotpolls, murderers, gamblers, bawds, whores, trulls, brigands, topers, tosspots, sots and archsots, lobcocks, smell-smocks, runagates, rakes, and other assorted and felonious debauchees.
In the predawn hours of March 10, police roused the runagates from their beds and led them, yawning and docile, from embassy premises.